Don’t Know Much About History Edition

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S1: Yeah. Yeah.

S2: Here we go. That’s going to work. This is a one, two, one, two, three. Welcome to Hit Parade, a podcast of pop chart history from Slate magazine about the hits from coast to coast. I’m Chris Melaniphy, chart analyst, pop critic and writer of Slate’s Why Is This Song No. One series on today’s show? Here’s a bit of chart trivia to kick off this episode 35 years ago, in 1986, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducted its first class of legendary performers, 10 in all, each one essential to the creation of rock and roll.

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S3: I’m quite confident you know them all from Chuck Berry. Go, go, go.

S4: Go to Jerry Lee Lewis.

S3: You wrote My Will, The Three Great, Great Balls of Fire to, of course, Elvis Presley.

S5: You ain’t got a.

S2: You’re not going to ask you to name all 10 and I’ll reveal them all momentarily.

S3: Instead, here’s my question out of this first wave of legends, who is the only one to launch his career with a number one hit that he wrote by himself?

S6: If you come by on that, please. Please. But don’t be.

S5: Too hard, that’s true immediately that eliminates Elvis, he never wrote a chart topper by himself.

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S3: In fact, he often got writing credit for songs he didn’t write at all. Jerry Lee Lewis never hit number one. Great Balls of fire peaked at number two. And Chuck Berry wouldn’t have a number one until the 70s. What about Buddy Holly will be the day when you say goodbye.

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S5: Sadly, the day when you made me cry, Holly did write the bulk of his material and the first hit for his band, The Crickets, was indeed a number one.

S7: But Holly co-wrote That’ll Be The Day with Crickets drummer Jerry Allison.

S3: Ray Charles, too, wrote much of his own material, but he had several top ten R and B hits before his first number one. And that immortal RB chart topper can be mine when I’m in need. I’ve got a woman was co-written with Charles’s trumpet player, Renauld Richard. The Everly Brothers scored several chart toppers in their career, but they kicked off with a number two hit. Bye Bye, Love and a number one. Wake up, little Susie.

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S2: Both of which were written by husband and wife songwriters, Felice and bood Bryan’s Little Richard let off his chart career with the classic Tutti Frutti A No to R and B number 17 pop hit that was made just a little less lewd by his co-writer, Dorothy Lieberson.

S8: Oh, my God.

S3: Fats Domino broke on the charts with his number 10 pop number one R and B classic Ain’t That a Shame? Which, like many of his hits, Fats co-wrote with fellow New Orleans songwriter Dave Bartholomew and Manasseh. He finally godfather of soul, James Brown, never had a number one pop hit and among Soul Brother, no one’s many R and B hits it took until James’ second single. Try me to top the R and B chart me. I’ve named nine of the 10 founding RockHall inductees, that leaves one who wrote his first hit by himself and instantly took it to number one on the Pop and R and B charts.

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S9: Not even Elvis Presley or Chuck Berry did that. And then he went on to basically invent soul music. That would be Sam Cooke, Dolly.

S10: You send me, however simple it might sound, now was in a way the most accomplished debut single of Rock’s first decade, Sam Cooke achieved something historic for any act, let alone a black artist. Two years before Motown had its first hit and before Ray Charles had his first major pop hit, Cooke was a self powered crossover star and he made it all look and sound so smooth.

S11: At first I thought it was an infatuation, but it’s lasted so long.

S3: Even more remarkable, Cooke became a secular music star after he’d already been arguably the biggest star in gospel music, singing with the genre’s top vocal combo.

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S7: That was a woman in the Bible days, she had been sick, sick so very long, and when he left gospel breaking the hearts of many in the worship community, Cooke pivoted to pop like it was his birthright.

S12: Just call my name. I’ll come running back to you.

S5: By the start of the 1960s, Cooke was recording for the biggest label in popular music, Cupid Draw Back Your Bow. And let your arrow. Soon after that, he would launch a label of his own.

S3: All of this success and influence made Cooke a key figure in the American civil rights movement as he played to integrated audiences and fostered black talent. The depth of Cookes social commitment is an especially hot topic right now, as the film One Night in Miami, nominated for several Oscars, finds Cooke discussing and debating with some famous friends of his about his role in the struggle. You know, I know what’s going on out there, right? Scene in the film, Cook is challenged to go further and deeper with his music, but in real life, Cook had already produced an anthem that would become his legacy not long after his tragic death.

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S6: It’s been a long.

S5: Today on Hit Parade, we will go deeper than one night into the history of Sam Cooke. He achieved so much in his two brief life soul pioneer, record mogul, social activist and one of the greatest voices ever to step in front of a microphone. And did I mention the man had hits so many hits? We’ll play the big ones and even the not so big ones because they’re pretty much all great babies coming home tomorrow at the new. And that’s where your hit parade marches today, the week ending February 29, 1964, when Sam Cooke’s Ain’t That Good News, was number 13 on Billboard’s Hot 100 and number two on the cash box, R and B chart.

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S2: It’s not one of Cook’s best remembered hits, but it was the one on the charts that fateful week in 64 when Cooke really did spend one night in Miami hanging out with three other celebrated black icons. And good news was emblematic of Cook’s singular career, an adaptation of a gospel song and the title track of the last studio album of his lifetime. Many bad news and bad news that got no.

S3: If you haven’t seen one night in Miami yet, and I do recommend it despite some caveats, which I’ll discuss momentarily, when you do hit Parade Listener, you might be surprised at how much chart talk is in the movie.

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S13: You know who gets paid more than the writer of a song that hits number ninety four on the Billboard Hot 100, the writer of a song that hits no one yet just a one off toy in a music box.

S3: Who knew Malcolm X was such a music snob? Anyway, one night in Miami is earning acclaim for dramatic exchanges like this one. When Oscar nominations were announced in Hollywood just last week, the film garnered several. Sadly, those nods were not in the best picture field or for acclaimed actor turned director Regina King. Of the three nods the film did earn. And this is especially interesting for music fans. The man who plays Sam Cooke is up for two of them. Get. Beginning to sing now, Leslie Odom Jr., the prior Tony and Grammy winner for the Broadway smash Hamilton is nominated for both best supporting actor for his galvanic performance as Cook. The film’s only acting nomination, by the way, and for best original song, the latter nomination is for Speak Now, which Odom co-wrote with songwriter Sam Ashworth and sings over the film’s closing titles it is meant to evoke.

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S5: Sam Cooke indirectly crossed with some of the folk music Cook admired brothers and sisters. This is what is somewhat ironic about all this attention for Odoms portrayal of Cook has to do with the film’s third Oscar nomination. That’s for its screenplay by playwright and screenwriter Kemp Powers, adapted from his stage play One Night in Miami. What’s funny about this is the character Powers story is hardest on is Sam Cooke in a Miami hotel room. Malcolm X, played by Kingsley Benadir Hectors cook for everything from his social activism to his music, the church songs and nurtured you.

S14: You twisted them and perverted them to feed a white crowd.

S3: That is bullshit. Most of the artists I work with are gospel singers.

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S13: Do you have any idea what I’ve given back to the church? How many times I have to hear that that has got to be the greatest fault of you so-called successful Negroes. You’ll do some detrimental to people with the promise that after you get rich, then you’re going to make it back up to them.

S3: Now, the film does depict a night that did, in fact happen February 25th, 1964, when prizefighter Cassius Clay, soon to become Muhammad Ali, won his historic bout with Sonny Liston to become heavyweight champion of the world and then spent a quiet, low key evening hanging at a Miami hotel with Cook, Malcolm X and football great Jim Brown. But what actually happened in that hotel room is pure speculation. No one outside of the still alive, Jim Brown knows exactly what the four men talked about, what they argued over or what music they listen to in the film. Sam Cooke is presented as a kind of foil for Malcolm X, a successful black performer seeking white approbation from his recordings of songs that appealed to the larger pop audience at the expense of his gospel roots. Two in one early scene in the film Cook’s Flop performance at the largely white venue, the Copacabana.

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S15: Let’s give a warm Copacabana. Welcome for Sam Cooke.

S16: How’s everybody feeling tonight?

S3: Let’s be clear, one night in Miami is hardly the only film in this year’s Oscar race that skews true events to suit a narrative from trial of the Chicago seven to Mank. But as my Slate colleague Jack Hamilton recently pointed out in an article about the film’s portrayal of Sam Cooke, quote, Movies play fast and loose with historical accuracy all the time. But one night in Miami so drastically distorts the facts of Cook’s life and work that it actually sells short his artistry, unquote. Throughout this episode, we’ll present small excerpts from one night in Miami. I’ll keep them fairly brief to avoid major spoilers. If you haven’t seen the film, though, this is kind of a hard film to spoil. And we’ll set the record straight on the greatness and social conscience of Sam Cooke. My goal is not to vilify Regina King’s powerful film. It’s about much more than Sam Cooke. Odom’s Oscar nominated role is considered a supporting performance, and Kemp Powers script is ultimately about a community in the 60s rising up to declare in vital new ways that black lives matter. Nonetheless, Sam Cooke is not only the focus of the film’s acclaim, he is the fulcrum around which the story’s central debate revolves. And hey, any excuse to think about how Sam Cooke became a legend and hear his extraordinary voice is one we had hit parade are happy to indulge in. Oh, there will be peace and love ballad for me one day that even if he had never become a star in the secular world, Sam Cooke would be a legend in the gospel world.

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S4: That’s him singing Peace in the Valley with the Soul Stirrers, a Jubilee style gospel troupe that had formed half a decade before Sam was even born.

S17: There will be big fans of.

S3: You know, about Sam entered the world in Clarksdale, Mississippi, in 1931, the fifth of eight children of the Reverend Charles Cook and Annie Mae Cooke. In 1933, when Sam was only two, Reverend Cooke packed up his family and headed north, settling on Chicago’s south side. There, the reverend established himself in the religious community. Sam grew up in a world of church music, singing with his siblings, and by high school he had formed a Jubilee quartet of his own. But he was also a fan of black secular music by such pre rock artists as the ink spots. If I didn’t.

S18: More than words can say.

S3: And a vocalist a dozen years older than Sam who’d even gone to his Chicago high school, Nat King Cole. I love you. For sentimental reasons. Both of these acts would later influence Sam’s own vocal style, but in the gospel world Sam was raised in, there was no musical act bigger than the Soul Stirrers.

S4: Oh, well, it’s by. Oh, and oh, and by the time Sam met them, the stirrers were already nearly a quarter century old. They had thrived through the Depression and World War Two by touring nationwide and by the 40s. They had helped pioneer a hard, close harmony, gospel style that would later influence doo wop and soul. When the Stirrers leader, R.H. Harris decided to leave the group in 1950.

S3: They recruited 19 year old Sam Cooke, whose surname, by the way, was still spelled c o o k like his father’s.

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S19: Oh yes. Tell me how far I am from. Can I know? I thought I might.

S5: OK, well, by this time the Stirrers were signed to a label, Specialty Records, founded in Los Angeles by budding music impresario and black music aficionado art group. The now former member, R.H. Harris had been the closest thing to a star in the Soul Stirrers. But the Stirrers had never had a star like Sam Cooke nor a black man. I’ll be with my mother, blessed with both a potent natural tenor voice and natural good looks, young women would come to church just to hear him sing. Cook was essentially the first teen idol of gospel music.

S3: His lead vocal on the Sturt’s 1951 single Jesus Gave Me Water, which Cooke biographer Peter Guralnick called almost dancing and playful, gave the group their biggest selling and most requested song to date, Lord Jesus.

S20: And What Jesus gave a warning to let it be well.

S3: The Stirrers had found a prodigy in Cook who became both the de facto leader of the group in his early 20s and their most prodigious songwriter. His original song, Be With Me Jesus, was structured as a counterpoint duet between Cook and fellow stirrer Paul Foster. It sounded like two generations forming a soul alliance. Not. I said by 1955, the Soul Stirrers were so renowned that they co headlined what is still over 65 years later considered the landmark show in gospel history, the great Shrine Auditorium concert. Thousands gathered in L.A. in July of 55 to see such stars as The Caravan’s James Cleveland, a budding legend in gospel choir, arranging the pilgrim travelers who would soon take on Sam Cooke’s friend Lou Rawls as a vocalist, and the Soul Stirrers, for whom 24 year old Sam Cooke was the main attraction.

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S5: Near the Great Shrine concert turned out to be rather pivotal for Sam in the audience that night was Robert Bumps Blackwell, a producer for the Soul Stirrers label Specialty Records. Blackwell was starting to branch out from gospel. Later that year, he would produce Little Richard, one of Specialty’s first non gospel acts. And at the shrine, Bump’s was taken with Sam Cooke’s undeniable star quality was.

S3: Morton Blackwell would spend the next year and a half pursuing Cook to convince him to break from gospel and go pop. Sam didn’t need much convincing. As good as it was being a star in gospel music, he could see it had a ceiling. Plus the explosion of rock and roll on the charts in 1955 and 56 had brought new opportunities for black performers. In the spring of 56, The Platters scored the first number one of the Rock era by a black vocal group with their remake of the song The Ink Spots, made famous in the late 30s. My prayer.

S21: My.

S3: With you and according to biographer Peter Guralnick, Cook himself had taken notice of the phenomenal crossover success of Harry Belafonte, the so-called king of Calypso, whose 1956 LP Calypso spent some eight months at number one purchased by white and black audiences in the millions.

S10: But I’m sad to say I’m on my way. People won’t be back for many a day.

S3: Moreover, the establishment of rhythm and blues on the charts in the first half of the 50s had laid bare its roots in gospel. R and B stars were pioneering bold new forms by shamelessly turning spiritual music secular. Some of the songs were baldfaced remakes in the summer of 54. While on tour, a 23 year old Ray Charles heard the southern tones. It must be Jesus on the radio night.

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S22: My.

S4: And Charles and the trumpeter in his band, Renauld Richard, turned the same basic melody into I’ve Got A Woman, which Charles recorded in the fall of 54 and turned into an R and B, number one, Smash Ziegel.

S3: We need to see the kind of friend I got a woman with now, compared with Ray Charles, Sam Cooke was an actual gospel star with an innate understanding of how soulful gospel could transform into soul music.

S9: By the end of 1956, Cooke would try the exact same trick. Only unlike Brother Ray, Sam’s experiment would not be under his own name.

S5: He’s my guide for Wonderful was a classic praise song, the wonderful one in the lyric was God written a decade earlier by Chicago gospel pioneers Virginia Davis and Theodore Fry. The Soul Stirrers had recorded Wonderful with Sam in early 1956 toward the end of 56, in a solo studio session with Bump’s Blackwell. Sam turned wonderful into She’s lovely.

S23: No, she’s not.

S19: I know she’s lovable. My.

S5: It was a secular spin on the wonderful melody, but Cook was nervous about issuing a non gospel pop single under his own name, so Specialty issued the single in January 1957 under the artist’s name Dale Cook. But Lovable wasn’t fooling anyone. She’s, after all, Sam Cooke was now already a star with the most recognizable voice in gospel.

S3: How was he going to hide that voice under Dale Cook’s name still, even though it wasn’t a hit? Billboard gave the single a lukewarm review and it sold only modestly. The lovable experiment worked in a couple of ways. For one thing, it gave Sam a way to get over his trepidation and prepare for his departure from gospel. He knew the church community would be withering in their judgment. Indeed, throughout 1957, many privately tried to convince him not to make the secular switch. Sam was especially anxious about the reaction of his father, the Reverend Charles Cooke. But to his credit, the reverend told Sam that singing with the Soul Stirrers was just his job. Quote, The Lord gave you a voice to sing to make people happy, he told Sam, according to Peter Guralnick biography. And if you can make more money singing pop music than you can the church songs that you’re singing, well, don’t nobody gets saved over singing, unquote. The other thing the Dale Cooke experiment achieved was it gave specialty records. President Art Rupe. The idea that maybe Sam Cooke, who by the way, added an E to the end of his name in 1957 as part of his transformation, could cut it as a pop star. But Rup had very specific ideas about what the new Sam Cooke should sound like. Specialty was having success with the fierce, gritty rock and roll sound of Little Richard.

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S24: But I’m going to check it out.

S3: And Ruth gave specific instructions to producer Bumps Blackwell to give Sam a version of the Little Richard’s sound, but Cooke was not interested in that raw sound. He thought he should sound more like this summertime.

S7: The living is easy.

S5: Summertime, the George Gershwin standard from Porgy and Bess was one of the most recognizable popular songs in the mainstream American canon. It was a savvy choice for a crossover record. And Cook’s languid, soulful take on the ballad would wind up on his Greatest Hits album several years later. But Sam and Bump’s did two takes of the song, and the version they intended to issue is a single was what really pissed off their label president.

S19: It’s summertime and the Livin is a.

S5: Cooks uptempo, super smooth, almost Rat Pack style take on summertime, complete with white backing vocalists, was not at all what art group wanted from his next Little Richard. It led to a rupture and a blowout fight between Sam Cooke bumps Blackwell and Rup. And in the end, Art Group released Sam Cooke from his contract with Specialty. So Sam and Bump’s took their recordings and signed with the smaller label Queen Records, which agreed to put out the uptempo summertime single.

S3: But what Keane was also keen on was a song Sam Cooke wrote by himself that he and they thought was going to be the singles beside Darling You.

S10: Suddenly, it was the darndest thing when Keane issued Sam Cooke’s debut single Radio DJs all flipped it over and treated you send me as the aside. Radio audiences adored it, too, and requested it in droves. And here was why, however easygoing it sounded, you send me was basically unprecedented. Bruce EDAR of All Music writes, quote, Although it seems like a team record today you send me was a pioneering soul record in its time, melding elements of R and B gospel and pop into a sound that was new and still coalescing at the time, unquote, myself wanting to marry you and take you home where you sent me. By the standards of the old school music business you send me now, regarded as Sam Cooke’s official single With Summertime on the Flip was a remarkably fast hit. In 1957, Billboard magazine still charted best sellers in stores separately from most played by jockeys.

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S3: As radio DJs were called, the Hot 100 would not launch until 1958 and on both charts you send me blew up. It made its best sellers debut on the chart dated October 27th, 1957, all the way up at number six. By December 2nd, it was Billboard’s top seller. On the radio side, Cook took two weeks to crack the top 10 on the jockeys chart, but then only four more weeks to reach number one by early December. It was also number one on Billboard’s R and B charts. This was an exceptional chart debut a couple of weeks before Christmas 1957.

S10: Sam Cooke, former gospel superstar turned pop newcomer, had the top selling and most played song in America on his very first trial.

S3: By the time the song hit number one, Sam had also been on America’s most popular TV variety program, The Ed Sullivan Show, twice the first time in early November. Sullivan brought Cooke on as his final guest of the night, but the show was running long. Sam got through not even two lines of the song before CBS cut him off.

S25: You Americans were so mad to see their new favorite song, Truncated.

S3: They flooded CBS with calls, and Sullivan had Sam Cooke back on December 1st. I know you. Sullivan even let Cook perform two songs the second time, and he apologized live on air, they did wrong when got here on our stage by young Sam Cooke from the coast.

S26: And I got I never received so much mail in my life. Sam the applause. The audience went overboard. That night, I never did get them on. But he has been on the first part of the show and here he is singing his newest hit record, Sam.

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S3: I love you, I love you, I love you, Cooke’s version of Nat King Cole’s I Love You for Sentimental Reasons was a top 20 hit on both the Pop and R and B charts in early 1958. And on the R and B side, Sam scored an instant number one follow up to you. Send me the similarly romantic and soulful. I’ll come running back to you and just call my name.

S12: I wish I come right back to you.

S5: Sam Cooke had turned into a pop fixture and TV personality remarkably quickly. By 1958, he was serving as a March of Dimes spokesman and singing his ring a ding, ding, ding.

S3: Mary Mary Lou on the TV variety hour, the Arthur Murray party.

S5: What the hooks acceptance by mainstream audiences was seemingly so swift that by March of 58, he would be invited to perform at New York’s famed Copacabana nightclub, a long time dream of Sam’s.

S9: Infamously, he did not do well, as is depicted again in the 20/20 film One Night in Miami.

S16: How’s everybody feeling tonight?

S3: This is a major plot point in the film. Not only is the 1958 Copacabana performance recreated in the movie right down to the stand up comedian Myron Cohen, who preceded Cook and reportedly set him up for failure with the largely white audience, Cooke’s desire to get another shot at the Copa is discussed and debated among the foursome of friends at the hotel.

S13: Not that bad. Come on, I find maybe it was that bad, you know, shuck and jive. In those days. I may not dance around a stage like Deqi or James Brown, but that’s not what I’m selling. So then my voice message, a message problem is that the cover you have to sell that message to a bunch of white folks that don’t matter. They got souls, don’t they? If I win them over playing our music, I’m knocking down doors for everybody is not going to always be the pop charts over here. Black music charts over there. One day is going to be one chart and one music for all people.

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S9: And so here we have our first corrective to the film in real life. The famed one night in Miami happened in late February 1964. Cooke’s failure at the Copa had happened six years earlier. It was not a fresh wound.

S3: However, if there’s one thing screenwriter Kemp Powers gets right here, it’s that as late as 64, the real Sam Cooke was still seething about his KOPA experience in 58. Here is a clip from the Mike Douglas Show on which Cooke was a guest in coincidentally, February 1964. Asked to summarize for Douglas’s audience the highlights of his career. Sam can’t help. Recalling his first major failure, one of them bombed bomb.

S27: Did you really? That’s right. It was a funny movie, the one in New York City you’re talking about, which I tried for some reason. It happens to be the prestige date of all time. If you make it at the Copa, that’s it.

S3: I think if you bombed, why do you I don’t know why, but because I was already back in 1958, the Copa seemed to check Sam Cooke’s momentum for the rest of 58 and 59. He kept scoring hits, but none approached the massive success of his debut smash You Send Me. It also seemed that Sam had been relegated to the black audience, as in his gospel days, three consecutive singles went top 10 R and B, but missed the pop top 20. You were made for me as sure as the stars above.

S19: I know. I know you want me. You will always win your love for me, love.

S3: If something very lovely and amazingly, one of his best known singles from this period, the party starter, everybody loves to cha cha cha, it reached number two on the RB chart, but a lowly number, 31 on the hot 100. Now, how about leaving less to do with.

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S5: She loves to do shots of. By the time of his summer 1959 single, only 16, another classic from this late 50s period, she was all the 16, all 16 Woodbines the. But Sam was beginning to think it was time to move on from Cheam Records, the small label seemed overmatched to promote a rising artist of his stature. What’s more, in 1958, Sam had married his longtime sweetheart, Barbara Campbell, and they were soon expecting their second child.

S9: Sam wasn’t making enough on keen records to raise a family. Plus, by 1958 and 59, the chart competition had gotten fiercer.

S3: Jackie Wilson had already scored his first R and B and pop hits Lonely Teardrops By. It’s no secret Ray Charles, after a decade of consistent R&D success, was now crossing to the pop charts with his first hot 100 top 10 hit. What did I say to go with director so she could do the. And in Detroit, a startup label named Motown, founded by a self-styled mogul named Berry Gordy, was scoring its first ever chart hit in late 59 with a Barrat strong song called Money The Best Things in Life.

S19: Pretty much you can end up doing that by that big.

S5: Speaking of wanting money, one last detail Sam wanted to get straight was owning more of his material.

S3: So when he finally scored a major label deal with RCA Records in the closing weeks of 1959, he not only bought back his copyrights from Kiene records, he also set up his own publishing company, Craggs Music, and began making plans to start a label of his own. In the meantime, in early 1960, RCA, which at the time was the biggest label in music thanks to having Elvis Presley on their roster, issued their first single with Sam Cooke called Teenage Senada. It did not set the world on fire, peaking on the hot 100 at number 50 and with my.

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S28: My teenage son, mother.

S5: Comes a prayer that we’ll never part the final irony, as Sam Cooke was amicably parting from Queen Records and closing out his business with the label was that he had recorded one last single for Queen.

S3: And this song, released just after the RCA single Teenage Sonata, was not only a much bigger hit on Queen, it remains one of Sam Cooke’s most beloved and best remembered hits of all of history.

S5: In June of 1960, what a wonderful world reached number 12 on the Hot 100 and number two on the R and B chart as of March twenty one, it is Sam Cooke’s all time most played song on Spotify. It’s also my dad’s all time favorite pop song. Hi, Dad. Although going on when we come back, Sam Cooke not only makes a pop chart comeback, he becomes a label boss and music mogul. And no matter what the movie says, Cooke was recording socially conscious hits well before 1964.

S9: After Wonderful World brought Sam Cooke closer to the top 10 on the pop charts than he had been in years, his new label, RCA, knew they had to step up and they finally did. Three months later, when Cook’s next single got all the way to number two on both the RNC and the pop charts. But really, it was Cooke who stepped up.

S2: He had written an ingenious, deceptively deep pop song.

S23: That’s the sound of the man working on the chain gang.

S7: Bashing was a jaunty, joyous tune, disguising a truly despairing topic, prison labor and by implication, the mass incarceration of African-Americans. Cook’s friend and fellow touring singer Lou Rawls later said that Cooke wrote the song after seeing an actual chain gang toiling in the hot sun by the road. As they drove past, Cooke built the beat of the song out of the metallic clank of prisoners shackles and from the hoo ha, an actual chain gang might chant to pass the time to hear them say. I’m going home to one of these days, I’m going home, see, my gang brought a social conscience to Cook’s music in 1968. Well ahead of the peak of the civil rights movement. And it expressed sorrow and regret even as it made you tap your foot like wonderful world. Chenggang set a template for Cook in the 60s, soulful pop songs with bright infectious melodies and alternative to the new Motown sound.

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S3: Sam had made his name in the late 50s with a mix of sweet, even sappy balladry and what you might call supper club music. Now, his lyrical themes would still be mature at times profound, but the music was spry and youthful, even when he was singing about heartache, as on his 1961 hit Cupid Cupid. Draw back your low.

S2: And let your arrow. Another single, Sam Cooke, penned by himself, Cupid became one of his most acclaimed songs, All Music’s Bill Javitz would later call it, quote, a perfect pop song that combined Latin orombi, jazz and mainstream pop elements. Rolling Stone ranked it among its 500 greatest songs of all time. It was also a solid crossover hit. Its number 17 peak on the Hot 100 was actually a little higher than its number 20 peak on the R&D chart. Unusual for Cook to this point.

S9: Now fully established on RCA, Sam Cooke would remain with the label for the rest of his career. But even before he left Kiene records, Cooke was laying the groundwork for a label of his own. In 1959, Sam had heard that his former gospel group, the Soul Stirrers, had been dropped by specialty records. Cook offered to write and produce music for them, including their new vocalist, Johnny Taylor.

S10: And Sam even proposed to release the new recordings like Wade in the Water himself.

S29: Jesus is called.

S2: So Sam and his business and songwriting partner, J.W. Alexander, the same man who had advised him on the launch of his publishing company, began forming a label just to record the Soul Stirrers.

S9: They called it SAR records, spelled s a R, which stood for Sam, Alex and Roy. It was named after Sam Cooke, J.W. Alexander and Silas Roy Crane, Cooke’s former mentor and ongoing adviser from the Soul Stirrers. From the start before competing label Motown had really scored any hits. Yet Cooke envisioned the SA label as a haven for black performers. Indeed, in one night in Miami, the fictionalized cook, played by Leslie Odom Jr., makes this very argument to the challenge posed by his friend Malcolm X.

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S13: Sam, you have one of the most effective outlets of us all, man. Your voice, you’re not using it to help the cause. Well, I’m not. I got the message to my songs. I started a label. I’m producing tons of black artists. Don’t you think my determining my creative and business destiny is every bit as inspiring to people as you’re standing up on a podium trying to piss them off in real life?

S9: Cooke really did see his work at SA as a form of advocacy. He was making his former bandmates in the Soul Stirrers new again. One of their most inventive recordings on SA was a track Cooke and Alexander wrote and arranged for them called Stand By My Father, who you’ve been my.

S30: We know that on spambot into the channel, in truth, the bones of stand by me father were not new.

S9: Cook and Alexander were adapting a gospel standard from the turn of the century, simply titled Stand By Me. It had been written by the legendary minister and gospel composer Charles Albert Tindley. He wrote the song that later became We Shall Overcome, by the way, and it was recorded by dozens of artists.

S31: For example, here’s a recording of Stand By Me from the 40s by gospel singer and proto rock legend Sister Rosetta Tharpe when I’m crossing Gernhardt River and Bobby. Jesus rest will be my piano.

S3: Stand by me in Cookes and Alexander’s hands there interpellation. Stand by me father changed from a gospel him to something closer to a pop ballad with a very memorable refrain I.

S5: Does that refrain sound familiar, Ben E. King, formerly of The Drifters, attributes his biggest solo hit ever to both Charles Tindall’s venerable gospel hymn and especially the interpellation Sam Cooke came up with for the Soul Stirrers. King adapted that refrain and working with songwriting partners Mike Leiber and Stoller turned it into the immortal 1961 smash Stand By Me.

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S32: Just As Long As You Stand, stand by me. So, Don.

S5: By Cook’s label would have an even greater impact on the sound of Pop after he signed a family band, The Womack Brothers, in 1961, led by the soon to be legendary vocalist Bobby Womack, the Womack’s renamed themselves the Valentinos and scored a quick hit on Sarre with Looking for a Love, which hit number eight on the Oraibi chart in 1962. I.

S7: I’m looking for a while, the artists on SA were benefiting from Sam Cooke’s production savvy, Sam’s own recording career was hitting its stride.

S2: By 1962, he was the second best selling act on RCA Records after Elvis Presley. Cook was flaunting his versatility, on the one hand, he could score with party records like his classic number one on the number seven pop hits Twistin the Night Away, as well as the number for R and B, number 17 pop hit.

S3: Having a party, you’re having a party.

S5: And then, on the other hand, Sam was also recording ever more deeply felt soul ballads like his slow dance classic Bring It On Home to Me, a number two RMV number 13 pop hit Real Sweet Love and bring it all close to me.

S7: When I was with Chain two years earlier, Bring It On home to me was a polished pop on the song that was more profound than it first appeared, which makes another scene in one night in Miami. More than a little unfair here.

S9: Kingslee been a diers Malcolm X is making his argument to Sam Cooke by playing Cookes records and savaging them for their shallowness.

S14: That is why, Brother Sam, this movement that we are in is called a struggle, because we are fighting for our lives.

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S13: Oh, and what words are we hearing from you, brother?

S33: Just a soul, darling.

S34: You. Sammy, I know you. Or maybe this one. I love you, I love you, I love you, I love you. I love you. I love you. I love you. Sentimental reasons.

S14: Wow, Sam, your music is deep.

S9: Well, the thing is, Sam’s music was deep. Malcolm’s implication here is that through 1964, when this scene takes place, Sam Cooke had been recording nothing but pablum, which, as my Slate colleague Jack Hamilton points out in his article on One Night in Miami, is wrong on at least two counts. First, Malcolm is playing songs by Sam that date back six to seven years. Never mind the fact that you send me was a more innovative hit than Malcolm is giving it credit for in this scene. And second, by leaping back from 1964 to 1957, this imaginary Malcolm X harangue ignores Cook’s hits during those seven years like Chain Gang and bring it on home to me and the social conscience that animated them. Sam took inspiration from sources Malcolm would have found quite profound.

S35: Three oh.

S4: Oh, Odetta often called the voice of the civil rights movement and the woman, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., called the queen of American folk music, was an inspiration to numerous folk gospel, soul and pop artists in the 50s and 60s. Among those inspired artists was folk luminary Joan Baez, who covered this Odetta arrangement of the post Civil War Spiritual Freedom at Dr. King’s March on Washington in 1963. And she also inspired Sam Cooke, who keyed into one specific line in the song and before Bill.

S36: I’ll be buried in my grave.

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S37: Oh, come on, I’ll be free.

S4: In his summer 1962 hit Bring It On Home to Me, a full year before Baez sang Oh Freedom at the March Cook recontextualize that line in the guise of a love song, you know.

S7: This illusion offers ample evidence that Cook was aware of both social justice movements and the folk scene well before 1964 by taking inspiration from Odetta, you might say Cook had a thing or two in common with this Odetta fan, a white boy from Minnesota turned New York folkie.

S5: I love it more. Hold that thought, because we will come back to this young gentlemen by their home. Well.

S2: I love that night, but I got no nobody. In 1963, Sam Cooke had another watershed year with highs and lows and ever greater diversity in his output. In the spring, he scored another top 10 pop number one R&D smash with his danceable, yet ruminative song, Another Saturday Night, a party song about not having anyone to party with him here on Saturday night. And I got no.

S9: Down in Aflex, Cookes follow up hit was a spin on the decades old story song, Frankie and Johnny and oddly sprightly murder ballad that had been recorded by everyone from Louis Armstrong to Johnny Cash in the 60s. It would become a top 40 hit for both Brook Benton and Elvis Presley. But the biggest hit version of all was cookes.

S5: Frankie and Johnny were sweethearts. At least that’s the way the story goes. Sam’s version of Frankie and Johnny reached number 14 pop number four on B in the late summer of 63.

S9: And then his follow up to that single was from yet another subgenre, a run through the Willie Dixon blues standard, Little Red Rooster.

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S23: I got a little Red Rooster. Too lazy to crow for the.

S5: Recorded for his lightly conceptual concept album, Night Beat, Sam Cooke’s take on Rooster was a strutting soul record with jazzy percussion. In the fall of 63, Cook took Little Red Rooster to the number 11 Pop No to R and B again, the highest charting version of that classic tune.

S9: Alongside this string of hits, Cook was touring relentlessly, honing his already formidable chops as one of the most dynamic stage presences of his generation. And he was living out his principles by refusing to play separate shows for white and black audiences, even in the Deep South. The highlight of his year in live performance came early in January, when Cook performed for a predominantly black crowd in Miami at the Harlem Square Club.

S2: It was a gritty performance for an enraptured audience, as in this moment when he turned his favorite Nat King Cole standard from light jazz into a boisterous Sing-Along Jam. Fans who were not at the venue that night would not hear of this Miami recording for more than two decades. It was posthumously issued on LP in 1985. In 1963, the Harlem Square Club show was a reminder that even as he was actively courting a white pop audience, Sam Cooke was still a master in a black room, able to code switch deftly now considered Cook’s best live recording live at the Harlem Square Club, 1963 frequently ranks on all time greatest album lists like Rolling Stones.

S9: Perhaps all of this relentless activity helped Cooke move on from the tragedies that befell him even during his rise to fame. Sam had lost people in his life in November 1958, while en route from St. Louis to Greenville, Sam’s convertible smashed into an idled truck. Cook singer Lou Rawls and guitarist Cliff White were all hospitalized, but Cook’s driver, Ed Cunningham was killed. Another car crash in 1959 killed Sam’s first wife, Delores, even though she and Sam had already been divorced and he was by then remarried to Barbara, Cook paid for Dolores’s funeral expenses. But 1963 brought the greatest tragedy of all. In June, at Sam’s home in Los Angeles, his 18 month old son Vincent wandered away from his mother and their housekeeper fell into their swimming pool and drowned. Sam was inconsolable, but also in communicative friends like Lou Rawls and J.W. Alexander could not get Sam to open up. Cooke simply kept touring and recording, and his sadness came out in the music when the moody and bluesy night beat album came out later that summer, an unmistakable, melancholy infused songs like Nobody Knows the Trouble I’ve Seen.

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S5: I lost everything. I mean, Old World and lost and looking.

S38: I’m lost and looking for my baby. Lord knows my baby.

S39: Around.

S3: Still, however much he repressed his pain.

S9: Sam was at the peak of his artistry going into 1964, he began the year recording what would turn out to be his final studio album. Ain’t that good news? Yet again, Cooke was finding clever ways to infuse his pop with the history of African-American song. The album’s title track, which we played you at the top of the show, is coming home tomorrow.

S3: I was a kind of down home southern flavored R B based on a venerable black spiritual that dated to the 19th century. Ain’t that good news?

S40: I’m going to lay down my problems. I’m going to take it oath to do this thing.

S3: Got as I noted earlier, Sam Cooke’s good news was the single he had on the charts the week in February 1964 that he went to Miami to watch his friend Cassius Clay defeat Sonny Liston to become world heavyweight champion.

S2: Good news indeed, since he wants me all to herself. I had that good news. Bad knew the song was at number 13 on Billboard’s Hot 100 that was on its way to a number of peak, but the song at number one on the chart that week was a different phenomenon entirely.

S23: Oh, yeah. I’ll tell you something I think you’ll understand.

S41: February 1964 was famously when the Beatles came to America kicking off the British invasion. Cassius Clay had his own run in with the group that loved meeting the Beatles in Miami the week before his Sonny Liston fight and taking a series of now famous staged press photos of the soon to be champ pretending to knock out the Fab Four, perhaps appropriately. Then the British invasion also comes up in one night in Miami.

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S9: Eli Grais Cassius Clay brings up his recent meeting with the Beatles and Malcolm X notes scornfully yet again that Sam Cooke is pandering to a pop audience now obsessed with a fad. That’s when Leslie Odoms Sam Cooke tells his own British invasion story. I invested in the British invasion.

S33: I have these proteges Valentinos five Womack brothers, youngest one.

S13: Bobby wrote this song, It’s All Over Now, Band Records. It is fantastic all over the RB charts. It even went to number 94 on Billboard Hot 100. Then I get a call from England. One of these British bands wants to record a couple of the Beatles now. Cash, they call themselves The Rolling Stones. The Muddy Water song.

S33: Exactly. So Bobby’s like, you know, no damn way, man. That’s our song, man. But I get the final say. I give the Rolling Stones permission to record it. And a Rolling Stones version of a song goes all the way to number one, not on the RB charts, pop charts.

S3: But of course, you know, once this version of the song gets big, Bobby’s version just disappears, falls off the arbitrages.

S13: It’s just gone.

S33: So, of course, Bobby’s crushed six months later. At first, royalty check comes in. My company owns the rights to the song. That means every time some microbus to copy that single, she put money into my pocket, our pockets, white boys out there turn around and you know, they working for us.

S13: Bobby, like the Rolling Stones want to cover any more versions of my song.

S9: So, OK, Hit Parade is a show about the charts and we can’t let this scene go without a bit of fact checking. The root of the story is true. Bobby Womack, leading his brothers in the Valentinos, did indeed write and record the original.

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S2: It’s all over now. And if there’s one chart position, Kemp Powers’s script gets right. It’s that the song did indeed reach number 94 on the Hot 100 and. Mean, what about that other stat that the young Rolling Stones took the song all the way to, number one? Well, they did, but in England, not in America. The Stones cover of Womack’s song topped the U.K. chart in July 1964 I.

S41: In the US, the Stones had not yet become chart dominators, and it’s all over now. Only reached number 26 in late September of 64. It would take one more single time is on my side to get the Stones, a top 10 American hit.

S3: Also, this claim that the Stones, it’s all over now. Kayode, Bobby Womack’s original from the RB chart.

S5: That’s pure fantasy.

S42: Tables turning now back to a new graphic anchored by.

S2: In fact, the Valentinos version breached its and chart of number 21 in early September 1964, just two weeks before the Stones version reached its top 100 peak. Oh, and finally, please note all of these dates, neither the Valentinos version nor the Stones cover. It’s all over now.

S9: Was on the charts really even existed in February of 64. So, yeah, a lot of imaginary charts, stats from Mr. Powers. But honestly, this tall tale of the Valentinos and the Stones is not one night in Miami’s most extreme bit of dramatic license. That comes a few minutes later when Malcolm X delivers the crushing blow in his debate with Sam Cooke by playing him one more record by Bob Dylan.

S13: You know, I was thinking about this song I heard on the radio the other day, Sam. It made me think of you. Turns out is pretty popular.

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S43: How many roads mastermind walked down before you call him a man? How many seas must the white sail before she sleeps in the same? Is how many times must the cannonballs fly before the Fall River Band? The answer, my friend, is Blowin in the Wind is blowing in the wind.

S14: Oh, I just love those lyrics. I really get you thinking don’t make angry. Wow. This is a white boy from Minnesota who has nothing to gain from writing a song that speaks more to the struggles of our people, more to the movement than anything that you have ever penned in your life. But being vocal and strong is bad for business. Why has this song gone higher on the pop charts than anything got out?

S9: Let’s break down the chart aspects first. Higher on the pop charts, not in 1964 and not that version of Blowin in the Wind, the version of Dylan’s masterful composition that became a pop smash was the cover by folk trio Peter, Paul and Mary. They’re Blowin in the Wind reached number two on the Hot 100 in August 1963, the same month as the March on Washington.

S44: How many roads must man walk down before they put him on my.

S3: Bob Dylan’s Blowin in the Wind, written in 1962 and released on his 1963 album The Freewheelin, Bob Dylan, was issued as a single around the same time as Peter, Paul and Mary’s.

S12: Is how many times must the cannonballs fly?

S5: Yes, and my friend is blowing in, but Dylan’s version didn’t chart he wouldn’t score a hot 100 hit of any kind until Subterranean Homesick Blues in 1965. So, yes, Dylan Song went higher on the charts than anything Sam Cooke released in 1963 or 64, but not Dylan’s recording and not at the moment. Our cinematic Malcolm X is eviscerating Cook’s career. But that’s not even the greatest departure from fact in this scene. Not only was Cooke familiar with Dylan song, he’d already been inspired by it. And by February of 64, he’d already written and recorded a song based on it.

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S12: The answer, my friend, is Blowin in the Wind.

S5: Yes, Sam Cooke loved Blowin in the Wind. And if there’s one true thing in the movies, Malcolm X diatribe, it’s that Dylan song did bother Sam. Quote, He was so carried away with the message, writes Cooke biographer Peter Guralnick. And the fact that a white boy had written it, that he was almost ashamed not to have written something like that himself, unquote.

S9: The fact is, Sam Cooke had been thinking he needed to write his own Blowin in the Wind. As far back as the March on Washington. Guralnick writes that Cooke was fired up by Mahalia Jackson’s presence alongside Dr. King, including the moment she sang How I Got Over.

S3: And that same year, Cook and his SAR records team had even recorded the Soul Stirrers singing the black spiritual that King referenced in his I Have a Dream speech free at last.

S41: So in December 1963, while preparing material for his Ain’t That Good News LP, Cooke wrote a song to his own guitar accompaniment.

S9: He played it for J.W. Alexander a couple of days after Christmas, saying he didn’t even know where it had come from, that maybe it had come to him in a dream.

S41: It was monumentally different from anything Sam had done before. Monumental period.

S5: Of a change is going to come. Peter Guralnick writes, quote, It was a song both more personal and more political, a song that vividly brought to mind a gospel melody. But that didn’t come from any spiritual. No in particular, one that was suggested both by the civil rights movement and by the circumstances of Sam’s own life, unquote.

S7: Cook was very proud of it. I think my daddy will be proud. He told J.W. Alexander.

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S41: As Guralnick points out, there is no one antecedent to a change is going to come. It doesn’t sound like Odetta doesn’t mimic Dylan, even though it is indebted to Dylan’s spirit. Its words are deceptively simple, not screening for poetry, but deeply poetic nonetheless.

S5: Quote, It’s been too hard living, but I’m afraid to die or I go to the movie and I go downtown. Somebody keep telling me, don’t hang around or there been times that I thought I couldn’t last for long, but now I think I’m able to carry on, unquote. It was perhaps the most succinct vision in song of how racism is live that have me.

S45: But he was.

S41: Moreover, Cook’s decision to have his arranger, Rene Hall, orchestrate the song made the finished product sound not at all like a folk song.

S9: It sounded more like another hero, Nat King Cole, on ornately arranged classics like Nature Boy.

S13: And while we spoke of many things.

S27: CFOs and kings, this, he said to me.

S3: And even though Cook’s masterpiece followed Dillons and the March on Washington, it came early in the lineage of black pride and black power anthems, one of the first civil rights songs to be so self reflective, Cook was signaling the direction these anthems would soon take.

S9: He wrote it just weeks before Nina Simone wrote her own deeply personal, fiercely angry and oddly jaunty Mississippi Goddam, a song she debuted at Carnegie Hall calling it, quote, a show tune. But the show hasn’t been written before it yet. And everybody. Here was the thing about a change is going to come. It was recorded in January 1964 and about to be released on the Ain’t That Good News album, the night Sam Cooke spent in a hotel room in real life with Cassius Clay, Jim Brown and Malcolm X..

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S5: It is, as my Slate colleague Jack Hamilton points out, a distortion of the record to claim that Cooke was only recording apolitical material by 1964 and that he needed to be shaken up by Malcolm X to be inspired to do so on. Oh, somebody keep telling me don’t. To be fair, Malcolm and company might not have known the song existed because the album was not out yet. Ain’t that good news was released on March 1st. And anyway, Cooke had placed a change is going to come on side B of the album.

S9: It wasn’t intended as one of the singles. On the other hand, just a fortnight before the Clay Liston fight, Cooke had performed the song on NBC’s The Tonight Show with Johnny Carson, complete with an orchestra. It was reportedly a titanic performance, but sadly, no tape of The Tonight Show performance exists. So this was the odd netherworld in which a change is going to come existed. Sam Cooke knew it was the best thing he’d ever written, but given its complexity, he performed it once live for the rest of 1964.

S2: The Ain’t That Good News album spun off further hits like Good Times Get In. Until I saw them, I saw and cooks cover of the Tennessee Waltz, I was.

S23: She.

S2: But a change is going to come remained an album cut Sam did manage to achieve one more personal goal that year.

S9: In July of 64, more than six years after he, quote, bombed at the Copacabana nightclub, he returned to the Copa and played a rapturously received set that was issued as a live album later that year.

S7: La Darling, you.

S2: It closed a career chapter for Cook, a final triumph the at the Copa album was the last Sam Cooke LP issued in his lifetime on December 11th, 1964, in a senseless incident that remains shrouded in mystery to this day.

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S9: Sam Cooke was killed at the Hacienda Motel in Los Angeles. Bertha Franklin, the motel’s manager, claimed that she shot him in self-defense when a drunken cook was moving to attack her. Cooke’s family and supporters have questioned the incident ever since the case was investigated and closed by the L.A. authorities in the popular imagination, Cooke’s death sits alongside the 1990s murders of Tupac Shakur and Biggie Smalls, among the most disputed deaths of a black musical luminary. And as with those future stars, hundreds of thousands of fans lined the streets to pay their respects to cook in the days just after his death. Also, like those rappers, Cooke left behind material that would be released in the immediate wake of his passing. One month after his death, RCA issued a single that spawned two new chart hits. The aside of the single Shake was the title track of what would become Cook’s first posthumous album. Shake was an exuberant dance record in the tradition of past.

S2: Cooke hits like Twisting the Night Away, Having a Party and Another Saturday Night Just Shake.

S7: And Jack is looking good, not reached number seven on the Hot 100 in late February 1965, his highest charting pop hit since Chain Gang reached number two in 1960.

S9: And then in early March, the singles B side reached its peak on the chart number 31, just barely a top 40 hit. What was that beside? It was a change is going to come.

S41: Sam Cooke’s masterpiece was finally a hit just three months after his. What else could the song be but Sam Cooke’s legacy, though it was only a modest pop hit change was a top 10 Orombi hit and it cast a long shadow over the next half decade of black popular music.

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S5: Its florid orchestrations, paired with gutbucket vocals, could be heard in the work of James Brown on his 1966 hit It’s A Man’s Man’s Man’s World. This is a Man’s World. And it’s social conscience reverberated through Brown’s say it loud, I’m black and I’m proud that louder and louder.

S9: Moreover, countless artists covered Cooke’s legendary song catalog, Otis Redding, another soul legend whose life was tragically cut short and possibly Sam Cooke’s only rival for the title of Greatest Male Voice in Soul took on several, including A Change is Gonna Come.

S3: In this long Aretha Franklin, whose career directly mirrored cooks, she, too, was a preacher’s child and befriended Sam on the gospel circuit back in the 50s on her 1967 breakthrough album, I Never Loved a Man The Way I Love You, she took on her friend Sam’s good times and a change is going to come.

S32: You said it’s been a long. Hometown Noman. But I know my change is going to come.

S9: In the 70s, white British performers who were inspired by Cook rose to the challenge of his material. Rod Stewart, who fell in love with Cook’s voice as a young man when Sam toured England, has openly emulated Cook’s husky soul voice throughout his career and covered many of his classics from Chic to twist in the night away to bring it on home to me to.

S3: In 1974, British folk pop artist Cat Stevens covered Sam’s wistful party song another Saturday night and took it to number six on the Hot 100, a few positions higher than Cook’s original did in 1963.

S2: I got out and I got some money.

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S3: I just got back, and in 1980, the great Orombi vocal troupe, The Spinners, scored one of their biggest crossover hits with a cover of cookes Cupid that reached number four again, higher than Cook’s original did in 1961. Good man.

S9: As great as all of these Sam Cooke compositions are, the song that generations of singers have returned to is A Change is Going to Come. It is a soul song in every sense of that word, a master class in soul singing that demands much of its performer and delaying bare of its writer’s soul at a vital moment in America’s history. Perhaps that explains why millions of Americans heard it at last summer’s live streamed Democratic National Convention.

S46: I was.

S47: He says. It’s just like the river.

S46: It was performed at the DNC by the virtuosic vocalist and Oscar winning actor Jennifer Hudson, singing from Sam Cooke’s hometown of Chicago. Like so many before her, Hudson found the heart and the grit in the song at another pivotal moment in our country’s history for one night in Chicago and Miami and New York and Los Angeles and Clarksdale, Mississippi, and in homes across the nation. Sam Cooke’s words provided hope that after a long time coming, a change was going to come in. I hope you enjoyed this episode of Hit Parade. Our show was written, edited and narrated by Chris Melaniphy. That’s me. My producer is Osia Solutia. June Thomas is the senior managing producer. And Gabriel Roth, the editorial director of Slate podcasts. Check out their roster of shows at Slate dot com slash podcasts. You can subscribe to Hit Parade wherever you get your podcasts. In addition to finding it in the Slate Culture Feed, if you’re subscribing on Apple podcasts, please rate and reviews while you’re there. It helps other listeners find the show. Thanks for listening and I look forward to leading the hit parade back your way. Until then, keep on marching on the one. I’m Chris Morgenthal.