S1: This podcast contains language that may offend some listeners. In 2006, Greg Kading was a narcotics detective with the Los Angeles Police Department on his forty third birthday. He got a phone call from the robbery homicide division. The LAPD was reopening a cold case. The 1997 murder of Christopher Wallace, the Notorious B.I.G. They asked if he wanted to join the task force. Kading wasn’t looking for a new assignment.
S2: I was already in this really good place and thought, well, I’m going to come down here and maybe this is a mistake.
S3: In the end, though, he decided to take the spot. I think that the overriding.
S2: Factor was that, hey, this is a really big, important historic case.
S3: If we do solve it, that’s going to be worthwhile.
S1: A few days later, he got to look at the case files. There were a lot of them.
S2: I just kind of remember laughing like, this is preposterous. And, you know, I knew it was gonna take months in order to kind of catch up on the investigative effort that had taken place for the previous nine years.
S4: So it was just daunting. So holy smokes. This is an in a lot of work.
S1: In the days after Biggie’s murder in Los Angeles, the police interviewed anyone they could find with a plausible connection to the case. Detectives spoke to Sean Puffy Combs, the CEO of Biggie’s label badboy Records. They also talked to the bus driver whose route past the scene of the shooting and clerks at the hotels where Biggie stayed at in L.A. They had the department’s helicopter unit fly over south central L.A. to look for the black Impala used in the shooting. They reviewed surveillance tapes at the hospital where Biggie was pronounced dead. Still, the case had gone cold. Here’s Biggie’s widow, R&B star Faith Evans, eight months after his murder. Right.
S5: I mean, one at all try to shame me, not LAPD, but it’s like like his hazmat as well as to protocol. I don’t understand. How could they not, you know, have any lead? I’m sure they have a lot. Maybe they’re not following the right ones.
S1: You know, what lead should the Los Angeles Police Department of follow? One widespread rumor had it has signature of death row records, had put a hit on big his revenge for two puncture cause killing six months earlier. Maybe Biggie’s murder was another drive by the long running war between Bloods and Crips. Maybe was something else something more explosive? A lot of people thought that crooked L.A. cops had been involved in Biggie’s murder and that the LAPD was protecting them. Biggest family came to believe there was something to that theory. In 2002, Faith Evans and Biggie’s mother, voletta Wallace, filed a wrongful death suit against the Los Angeles Police Department. Three years later, a judge found that the department had withheld evidence and forced the city to pay Biggie’s estate more than a million dollars in legal fees. A mistrial was declared and the case started over in 2006. Still under pressure from the wrongful death suit, the LAPD announced it was reopening its investigation into biggies murder. The detective who recruited Greg Kading for that investigation told him that the department had nothing to hide. That the LAPD was willing to implicate its officers if that’s where the evidence led.
S2: That’s where you go, where the clues go. Whatever it is, it is. There’s dirty cops. Fuck it. So be it. Let’s get him out of here.
S1: It’s a Keatings task force. Months to sort through the previous investigations.
S4: The first year was just a lot of putting our flowcharts up on the walls, figuring out who’s who and where they’re at at this point in time.
S1: By late 2007, they began to focus on the South Side kripp named Dwayne Keith Davis, who went by CDFI D. Keith Hedy’s was a drug kingpin in Compton in 1997 after a federal investigation. He was convicted on narcotics charges and served four years in prison. When he got released, he went right back into the drug business that gave Kading and his task force an opening.
S6: He began to do wiretaps and controlled buys and built a case against him, an airtight federal drug case against him.
S1: Kading use that federal case and a potential prison sentence of 25 years to life as leverage against key V.D..
S7: So now he can mitigate that. He can cooperate with us, help us solve these crimes to the ability that he knows.
S1: On December 18th, 2008, keif Hedy’s agreed to talk to the LAPD.
S8: But what he said wasn’t what Kading was expecting. Initially our interest was all right. Tell us what you know about Biggie’s murder. And that one that one wasn’t us. Those were his words. That one was in us.
S9: Kading had been trying to find out who killed Biggie Smalls. Instead, he was about to find out who killed Tupac Shakur.
S1: Would you go into here is the story of Keatings investigation. The last official inquiry into the deaths of Biggie and Tupac.
S9: I recently spent two hours talking to Kading at his home in Southern California. We covered his involvement in the case from start to finish.
S10: I’ve read a lot about these two murder cases over the past year. There are a lot of theories about who killed Tupac and Biggie into me. Greg Keatings seemed the most reasonable. But other people take issue with Keating’s conclusions. We’ll get to them later. Even if you accept Keating’s version of events, there are plenty of unanswered questions about the murders of Tupac Shakur and The Notorious B.I.G. There is no satisfying resolution here. Who killed Tupac and Biggie? And why? Why is no one been charged in either man’s murder? And what legacy did these two hip hop icons leave behind?
S11: This is slow burn. I’m your host, Joel Anderson. This is Episode 8. Dead wrong.
S1: Greg Keatings informant CUFI D happened to be the uncle of Orlando Andersen. Anderson was the man to pack in the death row crew beat down in a Las Vegas casino the night Tupac was shot. Anderson had long been considered a suspect in Tupac’s murder, although he was never charged. Almost two years after Tupac was killed, Anderson himself was fatally shot in a gang dispute at a Compton carwash. He was asked by reporters if he pulled the trigger and he always denied it.
S12: Were you involved in any way in the death of Tupac Shakur? Was not involved in the young life of victim?
S13: No. I feel sorry for him. You know, like I said, I was a fan of Anderson’s uncle.
S1: Keith Hedy’s had been nearby when both Tupac and Biggie were murdered. He’d been with Andersen that night in Las Vegas in September 1996. He was also at the Soul Train Awards afterparty in Los Angeles the following March. The night Biggie was killed. Keith Phoebes started telling Greg Kading about the night of September 7th, 1996 at the MGM Grand Casino. He said he got to Vegas a day before his nephew, Orlando Anderson, showed up with two friends.
S6: So he then goes to explain how they went out there to watch the Tyson fight and had no real intentions of getting anything thing with anybody.
S1: As you’ll remember from Episode 6, Tupac was in the crowd for that fight, along with Shug Knight, a crew from death row. They range Orlando Anderson at the casino afterward. One of the death row guys told to pack the Anderson had beaten him up and taken his chain two months earlier. Tupac rusted Anderson and attacked him and the rest of the group joined in on the beating.
S4: In Orlando, Anderson’s left there to lick his wounds. He finally catches back up with his uncle, who’s not far away.
S6: And they begin to plan their retaliation against Tupac and Chuck.
S9: CUFI D-N. Orlando Anderson, newer to pocket should would be after the Tyson fight.
S14: There was an after party at Sig’s Club 6 6 2, so they got a 40 caliber Glock handgun and headed over with a group of friends, but they arrived too early.
S9: After a while, a few of them made a run to the liquor store. CUFI Orlando Anderson and two of their friends were heading back to Club 6 6 2 from the liquor store when they heard fans screaming to pot to pot.
S14: It turned out that Shulgin Tupac were just a few feet away cruising down Las Vegas Boulevard and six new BMW 750 D.
S9: Anderson and their crew made a U-turn in their Cadillac and caught it to the BMW at the intersection of Flamingo Road and Kovel Lane.
S15: He hands the gun to Orlando, means out the window and just pops, pops to PA. And that’s the way it went.
S16: After Orlando Anderson pulled the trigger, they made a hard right in the Cadillac and drove away from the scene. The next morning they went back to l.A. And that according to Greg Kading of the LAPD. That’s how Tupac’s murder went down.
S17: There is this kind of tendency to be like, I can’t just be that simple. It is that simple.
S14: It wasn’t quite that simple.
S16: CUFI also claimed that Puffy had offered him and the other Crips one million dollars for the hit on Tupac and Sugar. According to CUFI, he never got the million dollars and never talked to Puffy again.
S1: He said they committed the murder for revenge, not for money. Puffy has strongly denied that he was involved with Tupac’s killing. Today, K-Fed’s D is in his mid 50s and lives in Southern California. He didn’t want to talk to us for the series, but he’s given other interviews and wrote a book about his life in Compton and his role in Tupac’s murder. He’s changed a story since he talked to Kading in 2008. He now says Tupac seemed to be reaching for a gun and that someone in coffee’s car fired in response. Greg Kading believes that Orlando Anderson killed Tupac and that CDFIs saw it happen. But Kading couldn’t close the case. That’s because the murder happened in Las Vegas and the Las Vegas police didn’t seem eager to solve it. Cathy Scott was on the cops beat for the Las Vegas Sun newspaper when Tupac was shot in September 1996. She says the police started antagonizing Tupac’s entourage right after the shooting.
S18: They started just yanking people out of cars and sitting them, you know, putting them on the curb and tell them not talk to each other. Some of them more face down. So and then you want them to cooperate. They were victims. You know, their entourage was fired upon. Tupac’s car was fired upon.
S1: The investigation didn’t go any better in the days that followed. It seemed to Kathy Scott that the Vegas police weren’t even trying to solve the case.
S18: I was told that it would be bad for publicity to have a case that high profile involving a black rapper and an in Las Vegas that it would be bad for tourism. So I don’t know. I don’t know. It was all it always stumped me. But like I was told, it would have been bad for tourism, I don’t know was that the bottom line was that the reason was laziness. Was it a lack of caring? Was it racial? I don’t think we’ll ever know.
S19: We asked the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department to comment for this story. They said the case remains active and the investigation is ongoing. Elvie MPD does not comment on open and ongoing investigations.
S1: Tupac was one of the most famous people in America and his death was a huge national story. He was also a black man in the Las Vegas police didn’t make solving his murder a priority.
S20: If you knew who killed Tupac, would you tell the police? Absolutely not.
S1: A few months after the shooting, a reporter asked Ignite why you wouldn’t cooperate with the cops who are investigating his friend’s killing.
S20: Because this is not love. I don’t get paid to solve homicides. I don’t get paid to tell people.
S1: Sugar is always denied that he had anything to do with biggest death.
S7: But Greg Kading thought he was a leading suspect and made perfect sense because he survived the shooting in Vegas. He loved to parking, would likely retaliate for him, and he had the means to do it.
S1: Sugar was consumed by death roast beef with badboy justice to pocket bean, and he believed there was a reason to retaliate against Biggie after Tupac was shot in Las Vegas.
S7: The rumor started spread that Biggie had been in Las Vegas, and Biggie had provided the gun in the bag. He had hired the Southside Crips. And so now it looks like Biggie’s responsible for Tupac’s murder.
S6: And so, you know, that all added up to him getting targeted.
S3: But we know, in truth be, I’d never do that to get to show Kading and his team use the same tactics that it worked on CUFI D.
S7: So now let’s figure out how we do the same thing with Biggie’s murder that we just did with Tupac. And find somebody who was in a position to know what happened and then compel them to cooperate with us in the decade after Tupac’s murder.
S1: Cygnet had been in and out of prison in his empire had fallen into ruin. In 2006, he filed for bankruptcy, claiming the death row had less than $10 million in assets and more than $100 million in debt. Keating’s task force started looking for evidence of bankruptcy fraud. According to Kading, they found that Sugar had tried to transfer some valuable death row master tapes to his longtime girlfriend to hide them from the bankruptcy court. When Kading published a book about the case, he gave six girlfriend a fake name, Teresa swan.. She was 42 years old and she lived in a house this sugar owned with their young daughter and a teenage son from an earlier relationship. And now the LAPD had evidence that Swan may have participated in shirks financial shenanigans. We reached out to the person we believe is Theresa Swan to ask for comment, but she didn’t respond.
S7: So we go and do the same thing again, build the case against her. Say we need to sit down and talk with you and otherwise you’re going to go to prison for this, you know, list of crimes.
S1: Swan didn’t talk that day, but they set another meeting for late May 2009. Three months away. Meanwhile, the task force was pursuing other leads. They came to believe that the person who pulled the trigger on Biggie was likely Wardell FAO’s, who went by the nickname Poochy. Poochy had been a member of the Looters Park pirates’ Street Gang and went to Sig’s most notorious goons in 2003. He’d been riding a motorcycle through Compton when someone shot him in the back and killed him. At first, Puujee just seemed like a good bet.
S7: He was also wanted on some other murders. We knew that he had a particular relationship with Shogi and he’s the kind of guy that would do this type of thing.
S1: Gradually, the evidence against Poochy started to look stronger. For example, Keatings team heard that Sugai had bought Poochy a Chevrolet Impala, the same kind of car biggest killer was driving. Kading thought Poochy was the killer, and he thought swan. knew it. So he tried something a little tricky. He drew up a phony statement, one that he claimed Poochy had made before his death. It said that Sugar had hired Poochy to kill Biggie.
S21: We showed it to her and she’s just looking at it almost like mesmerized in her eyes or big interests. Yeah, that’s exactly what happened.
S9: And then she gave Kading her account of how the plot unfolded. According to Kading, Swan said she visited shows several times while he was in jail for his role in the casino beat down over Orlando Anderson, during those visits in early 1997.
S22: She agreed to coordinate with Poochy to carry out the hit. They planned it for the night of the Soul Train Awards afterparty.
S7: They make arrangements for her to get paid. She pays poochy and the whole thing is set up and planned for when Biggie’s at the Peterson Art Museum. It was a place in L.A. where they knew they could find him.
S23: Kading and his team believe they had identified the killer. Poochy was dead, but sugarless, still alive and could be prosecuted.
S24: But that never happened. Kading was taken off the task force in 2009.
S23: Nine months later, a judge dismissed the lawsuit. Biggest family had filed against the LAPD. That meant the pressure was off the department. Even with Swann’s account, the investigation hadn’t generated enough evidence to get a conviction. And the department’s brass wasn’t interested in devoting the resources together more.
S25: The task force was told to wrap up its work.
S6: So now the whole thing’s kind of known void in the LAPD, like done. We’re done. That’s it. We got what we wanted. This shit is over. Everybody go back to work.
S4: But put the books on the shelves. Is this case closed for us? And that’s where it is today.
S16: The LAPD declined to answer questions for this podcast. We also sent them a public records request for the files on Biggie’s murder. The department denied our request, saying the files were part of an ongoing investigation.
S1: Cygnet is currently serving a 28 year prison sentence. He pleaded no contest to voluntary manslaughter after running over a man with his car and killing him in 2015. Greg Kading retired from the LAPD in 2010. The next year, he published his book Murder Rap. The book inspired a TV series in twenty eighteen. Katie was played by Justin Mãe. Today, Kading lives with his wife in a comfortable home in the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains. But time in Hollywood, money haven’t soothed his hard feelings. And Kading has bad news for those hoping for convictions in the Biggie and Tupac cases.
S12: There will never be any judicial closure in so far as anybody being prosecuted, and that is for most people, unsatisfying.
S1: It was basically just a cover up. That’s Randall Sullivan, a journalist who wrote two books on Biggie’s murder. Sullivan doesn’t think much of Keatings investigation.
S26: The cops were assigned to find some theory of this case that doesn’t of Biggie’s murder, that doesn’t involve LAPD officers.
S1: Sullivan’s first book on the Biggie case, Labyrinth, was published in 2002. That book was adapted for the screen, too. It became a movie called City of Lies, starring Johnny Depp and Forest Whitaker. Sullivan’s research is based on the investigative work of a former LAPD detective named Russell Poole. Paul Thoughts Ignite was behind the hit on Biggie, but he didn’t think Poochy files pulled the trigger. Polska biggest murder was much more sophisticated than anything I’ve ever seen a gang banger pull off. Here’s Russell Poole’s theory for how biggest killing went down. First, Shug went to David Mack, LAPD officer who hung out with death row. Mack then enlisted an old college roommate to carry out the murder. There is some circumstantial evidence pointing to David Mack. Mack drove a dark Chevrolet Impala like the one that was used in Biggie’s killing. An eyewitness also plays Mack outside the museum the night Biggie was shot. David Mack and the roommate both deny any involvement and biggest killing. In 1999, Mack was sentenced to 14 years in federal prison for robbing a Bank of America branch.
S19: The LAPD detective, Russell Poole, thought the department was covering up for Mack. He quit the force in 1999 and took his complaints public words.
S27: Paul says he retired early from the LAPD out of frustration because of this case, saying the department didn’t allow him to pursue leads that involved other cops.
S28: I think I was getting too close to the truth. I think they feared that the truth would be a scandal later.
S1: Sullivan’s book laid out Poole’s findings in more detail. That’s what prompted Biggie’s estate to file a wrongful death suit against the LAPD. In her own book, Biggie’s mother, voletta Wallace said the Los Angeles Police Department was doing a lot of questionable things and telling outright lies. It seemed to me that they were not truly trying to solve this murder or get to the bottom of it. To me, Russell Poole’s theory of the case seems convoluted. It’s not totally impossible that the LAPD would have perpetrated a massive cover up, but it’s hard to imagine so many different people with different motivations committing themselves to the same lie. Pulls investigation also lean heavily on the word of jailhouse snitches who are notoriously unreliable. Greg Keatings explanation is simpler and I think it’s more sensible. But Russell Poole never backed down. Here’s Randall Sullivan again.
S26: He was a pain in the ass. I mean, he would just could not let go. He was constantly calling me and telling me, what have you done this? Have you done that? He was obsessed with the case.
S29: And he was drinking too much and you’ve gotten pretty heavy and had heart problems.
S30: But he was still dogged in his pursuit of this case.
S31: Sullivan remembers getting a phone call from Poole in August 2015. Poole had been invited to present his findings to the L.A. Sheriff’s Department, which operates independently from the LAPD.
S30: He’s really excited. He thinks that the sheriff’s department really is serious about reopening the case and looking at it from a fresh angle and know not being intimidated or distracted by the LAPD.
S31: Poole plan to go to the meeting with a friend, but he ultimately went alone at the request of the sheriff’s department. The meeting was scheduled for 10:00 a.m. at 11:00.
S32: His friend got a call. Pool. It collapsed during the meeting. He was pronounced dead later that day, reportedly of a heart attack. He was 58.
S33: The bizarre circumstances of Paul’s death launched another round of conspiracy theories. Paul’s friend told Randall Sullivan, I believe Russell’s murdered.
S1: Russell Poole isn’t the only one who had difficulty letting go off, began to pack as soon as Tupac was pronounced dead. In September 1996, fans started speculating that he was actually still alive. Tupac was very political and he said a lot of things that people didn’t really want to hear. A college student told the Philadelphia Inquirer, theorizing that Tupac was hiding out for his own safety. Others speculated that Tupac faked his death for commercial reasons, that he would sell more records dead than alive. There have been reported Tupac sightings in Cuba, Somalia and Sweden. There was a rumor that Tupac attended an Occupy Wall Street demonstration in New York in 2011. And in October 2018, should Knight’s son posted a blurry video of a thin, bald headed man on Instagram? He said this was Tupac and that he was living in Malaysia just last month. The syndicated TV talk show Destination debated Tupac’s current whereabouts is alive and well in Haiti.
S34: I’m telling you, he he’s a cute autopsy picture.
S1: I mean, the autopsy photos from the autopsy picture referred to in that segment was published by the former Las Vegas Sun reporter Kathy Scott. She’s also the author of the book The Killing of Tupac Shakur.
S18: News stories were coming out that Tupac may have faked his own death and to kind of put that to rest with evidence.
S35: We decided to. It was the publisher’s decision and mine as well to go ahead and run it inside in black and white. Not in color.
S36: The picture is really gruesome. It shows him lying on his back head turned to the side. There’s a wound that covers most of his chest and he’s virtually split down his entire torso. There’s another gaping hole in the back of his head exposing a skull. That photo hasn’t done much to end the conspiracy theories. There was never much talk about Biggie’s still being alive, whereas Tupac boasted of his ability to survive the quad shooting. Biggie encouraged his fans to think of him as doomed. It came up over and over again in his music and interviews. His response to fame and wealth was fundamentally morbid. The cover of his album, Life After Death, really 16 days after his murder, shows them in a black suit leaning against a hearse. A few days before he died, Biggie did an interview with host Javy on the radio talk show The Doghouse, which aired on San Francisco’s K-Y L.D..
S37: You said in the video you told people, you know, sometimes I just rather be dead because in heaven or hell, I can just chill out. Now, I don’t have anyone stressed communism. This whole music thing was supposed to be fun. Not all this stress.
S38: I mean, you look at situation and you think, okay. That’s why I wanna be and wants to achieve success that you want. It seems like that’s when the play starts. Right. But it’s not all that. He’s not all that.
S9: Biggie and Tupac remain towering figures in Hip-Hop forever linked together. They serve as a cautionary tale for rappers and a reminder of how quickly fortunes can change. Here’s Shaya Heydari Coaker, a former hip hop journalist who covered both Biggie and POC.
S39: When you look at what Jay and Puff and Dr. Dre and, you know, the like have gotten to do and the things that Biggie Tupac didn’t get to do. It’s just really frustrating because when they both got murdered, they were thousand-year. And now rappers have evolved into being a million and billionaires and that explosion didn’t happen until after both of them died.
S9: It’s hard to think of a rapper who hasn’t at some point acknowledged legacies of Biggie and Tupac. Invoking their names in a song is a nod to hip hop forebears and a reminder of Biggie and POCs foundational place in the game.
S40: That includes Biggie tweets.
S41: Definitely hits a point in my life. I’m just trying to survive from a sad day on my mind, Christopher. Well, it’s so much our repeated offensive to pucks a Cawood. Now Machiavelli returns his golf gifts in.
S42: I hear people in the league and, you know, big impact, you know, they get. Any one pig farm, pig ale or tabi is pretty cheap, money is not a snake and I’m a stop killing.
S43: I grew up on big in music. I lived through their deaths and listen to the next generation of rappers who idolize them. Their music and the music they inspired has been the soundtrack to my life. I listen to music all the time when I’m up late writing scripts for this podcast. A walk into the office from my BMB in bed sty, just driving somewhere with my wife. Over the last few months, I started catching things that I’d missed in lyrics I’d been listening to for years, an old big line, a reference to Pop. It happened most recently while I was playing a new album from one of my favorite artists. Skyzoo was a 36 year old rapper from Bedford-Stuyvesant. He remembers biggest funeral procession making its way through his neighborhood in 1997.
S44: They’re literally driving him down the block in the hearse. And it’s crazy. It’s insane. It’s like nothing you’ve ever seen before. And in every window was blast and biggie and everybody window was playing a different biggie song. And every car driving down the block is playing. It just was insanity. And his flowers. Everyone is people crying and his. It just was nuts.
S45: Skyzoo drew on that scene in a song called It’s All Good live in LA Voice saying herenot All we need is to get a car. Should you send them a Hennie and make the cities crouch right over my dome? Fine. You get a word. They since they showed up my black Camry and Biggie earned from the Black Crowes.
S1: Memories of Biggie and Tupac have become part of the fabric of rap music. Their memories of the moment when hip hop was becoming a global culture, when it had to grow up.
S46: I think the thing that kills me is that hip hop evolved. You know, you always go back to that live. You know? You know, whoever thought the hip hop would take it this far.
S10: A creepy hologram of Poch took the stage at the Coachella Music Festival in 2012. Kendall and Kylie Jenner released Alana T-shirts with Begin to POCs Faces in 2017. And if you go see the Brooklyn Nets playing in a billion dollar arena less than a mile from Biggie’s old neighborhood, you might hear the beat noshing Meyrick used. For who? Chacha. Biggie and Tupac belong to the world now they move hip hop further than anyone could have expected. But hip hop had to move on without them. They’re gone. But we’re still here.
S47: Thank you to all of the Slate Plus members for their support. We couldn’t have made this season without you. We’ve created a playlist on Spotify to go with this season. It’s got every episode plus songs by Tupac, Biggie and their collaborators. Check it out at the link in the show notes. And if you want even more slow burn producer Christopher Johnson and I went on the podcast, switched on pop to talk about East and West Coast hip hop in the 90s to find that episode search for switched on pop. Wherever you get your podcast. And one less thing, we’re going on tour in February, we’re going to keep the conversation about Biggie and Tupac going with live shows in D.C., New York, San Francisco and L.A.. I hope you can join us for tickets or more information. Visit Slate.com. Slash Live Slow Burn is produced by me and Christopher Johnson with editorial direction from Josh Levine and Gabriel Roth. Sophie Sommer, grad is our researcher. Our mix engineer is a Jared Paul and Paul mounty gonewild composed our theme song. Our artwork is by Lisa Larson Walker. Some of the audio you heard in this episode came from Javy of the Doghouse. We’ve got a long list of people to think this time.
S48: Thanks to Allison Benedek, we’ll carry s.e Chambers. Serena. Don Yaari. Jhonny DESMOND-HARRIS. Jack Hamilton. Jared Holt. Mary Jacob. Derrick Johnson. Megan Carlstrom. Lo and Lou Breo. Mariette Christmas. Lanphear Sung Park. Katy Raiford. Iesha Solution. Alison shary Racial Strong, Maggie Taylor, June Thomas and Child 2 for making this season work.
S11: Thanks for listening. Warhol a out later.