S1: From New York City, this is Lexicon Valley, a podcast about language. I’m John McWhorter and this time we’re going to do a geek out episode. You seem to like the language family shows and so do I. And I have always wanted to do Southeast Asia. We’re talking about that little pouch where there’s Vietnam and Laos and Cambodia and Thailand. What’s going on down there? You might justifiably think that there’s some one language family that exists there and you might think it has something to do with Chinese. The Chinese has relatives and there must be relatives of Chinese spoken down there. And, you know, the people in those particular countries, physically, they look somewhat alike from a distance and from a distance. The languages sound kind of similar, i.e., they sound kind of like Chinese. So you’d think that the language family situation in Southeast Asia is pretty transparent. But no, it’s not. All sorts of stuff has been going on down there and is now. It’s a fascinating region. And I dedicate this episode to my colleague and friend Jim of who I worked with in the Berkeley Linguistics Department back in the day. And he and I are still in touch. And my introduction to languages of this part of the world was through him. There’s so much that I would never know if I hadn’t known Jim. So, Jim, this one goes out to you. These languages can be hard to get a handle on. If you are an Indo-European language speaker, they seem kind of impenetrable. The tones are completely alien to we who speak English or French or Dutch or even Russian or something like that. And a lot of the alphabets, we can’t read them. And so, you know, even if we see a menu, that’s the way we might encounter these languages most often. At least I do. You can’t read the script. And so there’s just a kind of a mystery. Let’s dig in a little bit. What’s going on with Southeast Asia? Well, for one thing, it’s not just some Chinese or something like Chinese, and it’s not just some one other family. It’s not even just some to other families. It’s really fun stuff. So let’s take the situation segment by segment. There are hundreds of languages spoken down here, but there are certain ones that are the biggies. And Vietnamese and Cambodian are what you could call flagship representatives of a language family called Austro Attic. So one of the three families in this region is Austro Attic, and that’s represented by Vietnamese and Cambodian. They are related. The thing that stands out most about them to us from a distance is that many of these languages have tones. They very much like Chinese, but they tend to have more tones than Chinese. So, for example, in Vietnamese, you can pronounce a syllable on one of six different tones and it completely changes the meaning. Now, I’m not going to imitate it myself. I will never be able to wangle Vietnamese. So this is a native speaker and the syllable is ba listen to this person saying it. Why, that’s three ma. That means Governor Ma. That means Lady Ma. That means poison by then. It means residents by that means at random. And this is not just ba, this is all syllables, this is the way that language works. That makes it something so different from this thing called English. And it really is a little lesson in bilingualism. If we value bilingualism, we must understand that it’s something that is best learned early. Magin learning a language over the age of about fifteen where the tones are that important and you’re not used to them. It’s virtually impossible unless you’re completely immersed and a little bit obsessive in this country. We value bilingualism, supposedly, but then so many people are bilingual in Spanish and English, and somehow it seems that in the minds of many, that doesn’t count as bilingual. That’s a whole rant that I’ll get into some other time. But in general, languages are such that they are best learned by toddlers and small children, and nothing makes that clearer than how these tonal languages work. You’d think that because it has these tones that Vietnamese and Chinese would be related. People have thought so. There some people who still think so now and it’s not the case. But before we get to that case and why it doesn’t work, there’s something beyond the tones. The tones are just part of the story. Listen, for example, to this word for poison again, Ma. And now listen to the one for Ma. Do you hear that? It’s not only the tone, it’s also that residue is said in a kind of a creaky way. A little bit of that little bit of. Like a door opening on an old radio show like like that, that’s a thing that is called freakiness and of all things, that is as important in many languages as tones in distinguishing one word from another one. For example, there is another Australasia’s language called HMU. It’s not cute. You can imagine having a home as a bet, but there are many varieties of HMU. And in one variety of HMU, this business of freakiness actually alone makes the difference between one word and another. So for example, BOQ means to take a bite. Poque means to cut down a tree bark pok pok pok. It’s just the freakiness. Or for example, there’s another one of these languages. There’s one called Broo. It’s spoken in Thailand and there is a word loop that’s to jump over something loop but then loop means to pat fondly. Isn’t that neat. Lip is to jump over like the cow jumped over the moon. Lip is to caress something kind of sexy that’s called freakiness. There are two things. There’s freakiness and then there’s breathiness. So hypothetically, you could have pork, pork and pork. That would be the breathy version that’s called register and they’re languages that are tonal. Then there are other languages that are very similar where it isn’t tones, but it’s that difference in quality that’s called register. You have a lot of that in Southeast Asia. Absolutely fascinating. And then what can happen is that tones can become register distinctions. So you can start with these pitch distinctions and then it becomes this difference between freakiness and breathiness. Or you can have the freakiness in the breathiness turning into tones. That happens all the time or all of it just falls apart and you don’t have tones or register. But that doesn’t mean that then you just go to what we think of as a normal language like English, by no means if the tones disappear and they don’t become register or if the register disappears and doesn’t become tones, what you get is lots and lots of vowels. You get a language where are more distinct vowels than we could ever imagine a language having. In fact, Australasia ADEC languages in this region have the largest vowel inventories in the world. You have a language where they say thirty, thirty two different vowels as opposed to an English where they’re about fifteen. That’s going to be Austro acidic. So for example, Cambodian or Khmer, Cambodian, depending on how you count it has at least twenty five different vowels. You could say thirty. And so listen, for example, to this native speaker making the distinctions.
S2: Ay ay ay ay ay ay or or or uh the easier ay ay ay ay ay. How our own um m e oh hey.
S1: Oh so that’s Australasia ADIC. These are languages that either have tones or they have register distinctions between creaky and normal or they just have way too many vowels. And Cambodian is a beautiful example of that. Cambodian is not tonal, but what it is instead is it has just an amazing number of vowels. Now actually I suppose it’s time for a song and I know I’m supposed to play something from Miss Saigon because we’re talking about Vietnam. But you know what? I’m going to admit something I don’t like, miss. I can’t. So I’m not going to play something from that. So why don’t we try another miss show like Miss Liberty? Miss Liberty was a failed musical about the genesis of the Statue of Liberty. Can you imagine people singing and dancing about that? This was Irving Berlin and this was in between his hits, Annie, Get Your Gun and call me Madam. And of course, the songs were great. And of course, we’re going to hear one. This is a little fish in a big pond. And you know who’s singing? It’s Eddie Albert. So if you remember Eddie Albert from Green Acres singing the theme song, this is Young Eddie Albert and he is singing on the Broadway stage. This is a little fish in a big pond. I’ve always liked this song.
S3: I just don’t belong in any big town. Oh, little fish in a big pond has plenty of room to swim, but swimming around are big fish all ready to pounce on him. Back to his little part. He starts to roll. The little fish spreads his fins and begins to swim back home. That’s me, a little fish in a big pond all wrong. That’s me, a little fish where a little fish don’t belong. A little man in a big town gets butterflies in his gold. I am ready to spread my feet and begin to swim back home to the little Paul. Who are the little fish and a little man? Belal.
S1: Australasia attic is one thing. Then you’ve got among men, many of us have probably heard of the Hmong language, although the truth is the Hmong language is actually a few dozen languages, depending on how you count it. There isn’t just one. It’s a family. And the name of the family is Hmong men. Now, in Chinese, it’s called MÃ Yao, which is much cuter because it sounds like a cat. And that’s what this family was known more widely as until relatively recently. But no, it’s Hmong men, not yo, yo, yo, yo. It’s cute, but Hmong men, the Hmong in languages. If you look at a map of language, families in Southeast Asia, they’re sprinkled in Laos and Vietnam, you know, come here and here. It looks like somebody put sesame seeds on something and the Mayan languages look like that. And among many languages are interesting for many reasons. One of them is that, boy, do they take the tones far. And so some of these languages have 12 different tones. So, for example, here’s one of them. This is the white Hmong language, white Hmong. Their colors is green Hmong, et cetera. White Hmong has seven tones. Listen to what Paul means, depending on what tone you use for like a ball, for pancreas, for Thawne, for female, for to throw my paternal grandmother, not maternal grandmother, paternal grandmother, but to see. So all of that you have to know this in order to speak Hmong. Now, actually listen to the difference between to throw and paternal grandmother once again.
S2: Bah bah bah.
S1: You hear that paternal grandmother is breathy. So it’s not only tone. There’s also a register, as we call it, issue here. There’s a breathiness to paternal grandmother that way that it sounds kind of like a sigh. That’s not just this speaker’s eccentricity. You have to say it that way. Now, the languages teach you a kind of a lesson because you see them sprinkled like these seeds. Why is it like that? Why would a language family be distributed in that way where it’s only just in dots? And if we pull the camera in closer, we’d see that these languages are actually mostly spoken up in the hills. Most Hmong speakers are up high. Why? Why would it be like this? Is this the way it was originally or is it that people started out in one place and then they kind of scattered for some reason and only wanted to live up on the hills? No, that’s not what happened. What it is, is that Hmong men used to be distributed in a nice, smooth, ordinary way, like a normal language family is. But this situation where you’ve got the sesame seeds is a laterally development because essentially the speakers of Hmong in were chased up into those hills. When you see a family distributed in that way, it’s because somebody overran these people in the past. And in this case, it was the Chinese. The Chinese moved southward and what was once a uniform territory of Hmong men. Speakers became Mongolian speakers, kind of shuddering in a way up in the hills while down in the flatlands, Chinese varieties took over. And not only did Chinese chase people into different places, but what happened really on the ground is that people came together, people mixed, people learned each other’s languages. What’s happened in Southeast Asia is that the Chinese have migrated down, have conquered down. The history is different from centuries, a century, from millennium to millennium. And as a result, the language families of Southeast Asia have become more like Chinese. In fact, an awful lot like Chinese because speakers of Chinese mixed in with people who were speaking the original versions of these families. And so Vietnamese is so much like Chinese because the Chinese move down and mixed with speakers of languages like Vietnamese and made these languages that way. The Hmong languages have all of these tones and are very Chinese like in all sorts of other ways because they mixed with Chinese. So what do I mean by like Chinese? Well, what I mean is that in a language like Mandarin, everything is based on these little syllables. And of course, there are only so many little syllables you can come up with with a consonant and a vowel like Ma Beatty. And so you need tones so that you have more to work with. The classic example is ma, mother, ma, horse, ma, scold, ma. And then it’s something that you stick at the end of something to make it a question. So you have to make the tones. And it’s not that all words in the. Language, just one syllable, most of them aren’t, but an awful lot are two syllables, that is pretty much the norm. And so compared to something like Russian or English, the language looks on the page kind of telegraphic. And this is a structure that you don’t see in many languages of the world. So, for example, the word for time is two syllables and they have different tones. Sugan, that’s time. But then if you say should gine and you have the syllables on those tones, that one has them all in the same tone, then Sugan means event. Then if you say should Sugan and you have those two tones on the syllables, then that means practice like practice makes perfect short syllables distinguished by tones, generally two syllables at a time. That’s not the way most languages of the world are. There are actually very few clusters of languages like that. There are few languages like that in West Africa. There are some languages that you can say are like that in Mexico, but they really do cluster in this part of the world where you have Chinese and then these three other families. It’s not by chance that you get this rather unusual configuration as to how a language would go in this part of the world among so many families. It means that the other families got that way because of the influence from another one. And in this case, it’s Chinese that done the deed. Now, exactly how this happened, who married who, who learned what language, how these languages all came to be so much alike. That’s still being worked on by specialists in these families. But the likeness is unmistakable. And so if you are looking at languages of Southeast Asia, they do all seem almost oddly like Chinese to the point that at first most people thought they must be related to Chinese. But in fact, if you look at the basic words, you can see that they don’t match up enough for these to all be the product of the same original language. You see all sorts of grammatical differences that would not trace back to one original language. It’s that Chinese made all of these look like itself. And you can see it, for example, in that Hmong languages are more like Chinese when they’re close to Chinese or Australasia. Attic in Southeast Asia is like Chinese because Chinese actually percolated down into that area, but they’re also Australasia’s language is way over to the West and India, and they’re nothing like Chinese. They’re Australasia’s languages down in Malaysia. They’re called the Australian languages. They’re not like Chinese at all because the Chinese didn’t get down that far. So there’s a Chinese story. What’s happened is that Chinese has made all of these languages a lot like it so that some linguists, such as Jim Maddis off call this the cyno sphere more generally. It’s one example of many in the world of what’s called Aspromonte, and it means that languages that are spoken contiguously and languages that are often shared in the same mouth often start to seem like it’s kind of like, you know, roommates or, you know, married couples apparently supposedly start to look alike. So, for example, imagine a place where languages tend to have a word for and a word for the where languages tend to have a word meaning have instead of saying that something is to me or something is of me where languages tend to have a perfect construction. And so you say Elvis has left the building and languages tend not to have uvular consonants. So you can go put that’s a bilabial consonant you can go to. That’s an alveolar consonant. You can go that’s a valid consonant, you can go, that’s a uvular consonant. Well imagine a place where there’s a difference between A and the and there’s a word for have and there’s a perfect tense in there. No uvular consonants that’s called Europe. We think of that as perfectly normal. But really there is a certain, especially Western European bond where languages tend to be alike in ways that are relatively unique in terms of how languages work around the world. Well, in Southeast Asia, it’s this Chinese ness that is the Brockmann trait. We’ve got our Australasia ADIC, we’ve got our mung yen. And then there is the one other family. That other family is the one that Thai and Laotian Lao are in Thai and Laotian actually are kind of like Danish and Swedish. They are very similar, if you ask me, and nobody did and nobody. So they’re kind of the same. You’re not supposed to say that they’re very close, but Thai and Laotian and then about seventy five other languages that you’ve probably never heard of except for Thai. And maybe you know that there’s a Laos language. This family is called by the specialist these days, Karadi. However, it used to be called Thai Kundai. And that’s what I’m going to call it, because that’s clearer for us. It’s. The family that has tie in it, so tie dye, otherwise known as Cariddi, so that’s our other family. And, you know, with Ty, I know little bits of lots of languages, as you may have guessed with Ty all the time. I know how to say thank you. And it’s interesting. You learn something every day. I always knew that you say Capcom and that that is guys and Capcom car that is women. Now, I have always used that entire restaurants and you know, the waiters and waitresses pretend to be impressed, but I was still getting it wrong. I always thought that you said to a man and capcom car to a woman, but no, it’s who you are. A man is supposed to say a cup and a woman is supposed to say Capcom got. I don’t know how many times I have said Capcom car to a waitress in a restaurant thinking that that’s what I was supposed to say. And you know, she says, oh you speak so well. And I sounded like a perfect idiot because I’m a man I’m supposed to say capcom grop. It’s just one of those things. In any case that’s how you say thank you and you can hear that there are the tones and tie, you know, seems very much like Chinese in that it’s got the tones, it’s got the monosyllabic structure. You know, I once knew a school kid who was reading out a report that he had written about Tiger Woods and the book didn’t know what tinies was. And he said, and Tiger Woods is half way. I thought it was OK. In any case, it all seems like Chinese. But no, Tiger Dye has a very interesting story. It started as Austronesian. I did a show about Austronesian. Austronesian is the family that has Tagalog in it, that has Malay, Indonesian in it, and then Polynesian languages like Hawaiian and Samoan and Tongan. All of that is Austronesian. It’s a family of about a thousand languages. They are nothing like Chinese. But Austronesian began on the island of Taiwan and then spread outward. And it’s become clear over about the past 15 years that Tai kidI started out as that and then moved southward and got smudged over by Chinese like these other families and became what it is today. But the beginning is different. And so what it comes down to is that if you become like Chinese, your words get shortened and that’s what happened with Tai Chi die. And so actually there is a beautiful quote that somebody did not about these languages specifically, but about the Chinese family, cyno Tibetan that gets across what would have happened to Tai kidI originally. And I don’t know why I imagine this, this statement by Robert Schaefer in this voice. This is the voice of a handyman at one of the colleges I went to. He actually talked like this. He would see somebody and he’d say, the word for you is ubiquitous. You’re everywhere. So I’m going to do it in his voice. If a high powered racing car is driven a terrific speed into a cement wall, the results on the car will somewhat parallel those on polysyllabic cyno Tibetan words. The front part will be greatly compressed, parts will have dropped out and there will be considerable distortion, but the body will remain fairly intact. That’s what happens to words in this part of the world. Everything gets short, the front gets lopped off, the end gets lopped off. And that’s how you get the short Chinese words, feng shui, et cetera. Well, that’s what happened with Tiger die, because if you look at tie, everything is everything is short. But in some of the more obscure languages, and especially in one called Buang, it’s sounds like and scent of a woman with that buia bouillon, buang happens to preserve the original state and it’s the most fascinating thing. And so if you look at Austronesian languages and you’re trying to figure out what the original word for Bird would be, it would be monarch. Monarch would be the word for bird. Now in buang this Thai gaddi language, the word for bird is monarch in Thai. That word is not not now. You’d never know there was a relationship between not a monarch with just Thai and looking at Austronesian languages. But what that is is monarch after a car accident. And so instead of monarch, the market’s lopped off and the cookies lopped off and you just have the new and it becomes not so monarch to not that’s Thai having become Chinese, so to speak. But bouillon preserves the original state or for example, the original Austronesian word for I would be mutta. So that’s good. Now in Thai the word for eyes top Thai. OK, well, that might be an accident matak top, but bouillon the word for eye is matter top and this just goes on and on and on the word for to die, to perish. MATTEI And in Buang, it’s Mattey. It just goes on and on. It’s quite clear from Buang that Thai kidI started as one of these Austronesian languages and most of the Thai Kundai languages got this Chinese treatment. They basically got Chinese offside and so all the syllables got a lot shorter to the point that the original state is unrecognizable and basically unreconstructed. If you just look at something like Thai, but if you look at Buang, you see the original state. And so it’s become clear that the people who spoke the original Thai gaddi language that became today 75 would have been up north where Austronesian was arising. Then they moved downward. They came into contact with Chinese speakers. And you got the Chinese like Thai of now. So Thai is kind of like a jazz version of the original Thai katehi language. It’s like it it took the soul of the original and kind of boiled it down. It’s like Carole King song. Jazz Man left
S2: me. You left me. The.
S4: Jasmines plus iron. Me.
S2: You can see it, that’s for free to.
S1: There’s one other thing about Southeast Asia, and that is the Andaman Islands are over to the west of this peninsula of sorts. And there’s a little story there that I have found so fascinating. And I’ve wanted to get it into one of these episodes. And I’m going to slip it in here because it just shows you how much fun these sorts of things can be, how science can proceed, what sorts of stories can be told, by what sorts of data. There is a language spoken way up in India, near Nepal called Cassandra. Cassandra is weird in that it’s not related to any of the other languages there. If you’re up near Nepal, the language is supposed to be either Indo-European and Arion related to languages like Hindi or it’s supposed to be a Sino Tibetan language spoken to the West. And so one of the languages related to Chinese, there are languages of that family over in India, too, or there are some other things that could be. But it’s not supposed to be just itself all alone. It’s an isolette, is what that’s called. Now, the people who speak Karoonda or spoke, I think it’s pretty much extinct now, but spoke it until recently, are smaller and darker than the surrounding people in the area. And here’s a tribute to another linguist, Merrett Rullan. Controversial, but I think under sung, he passed away recently. And so this is my tribute to him. He did an article about 15 years ago where he noticed that Kunda had some unusual similarities to a language spoken in the Andaman Islands called Jewboy. He was noticing that the word for eye is Chee in Lucinda and it’s Htwe. Enjoy the word for you is new and Karoonda it’s GUI. Enjoy the word for he she it gajda in Cassandre Keita. Enjoy. That’s too close to be an accident. And then there are some things like how do you do mine czi in Cassandre to yet enjoy and so on. In terms of how human migrations go, people would have passed through that Cassandre region and gotten down to the Andaman Islands. Good. Sixty thousand years ago. Based on today’s estimates when Merrett was writing, he thought it would be like 80. Now I think people would say 60, but this would have meant that languages retain those similarities over sixty thousand years. And so that seemed to fly in the face of the idea that many conservative specialists of language change have that once you get past about ten thousand years distance, things have changed too much for you to be able to reconstruct anything, especially with things going on like Tai Kundai becoming like Chinese, when originally it would have been a lot like Indonesian and Hawaiian. So the idea is that the signal just fades. But Merrett was making the point that this would seem to suggest that you can reconstruct things that have been sitting there for many tens of thousands of years. Nobody paid attention to the article that he wrote about this, and I thought that wasn’t fair. He was also trying to push it that Lucinda was similar to languages spoken way down on New Guinea. I found that less convincing, but the Jewboy thing seemed pretty solid. But nevertheless, it still seemed like kind of a stretch. Sixty thousand years and things change. That little seemed a little weird, and yet there was no reason to think there had been any communication between these very isolated people on the Andaman Islands and very isolated people speaking gustnado. Well, you know what? Now we know why. And I have no reason to think that Merrett ever knew this. And I am not sure anybody else is paying any attention to this. But it’s something that I have noticed. It has been shown that the OnDemand people only got to those islands about twenty five thousand years ago. They are a later migration, not the original people, if there were any. And that explains why Cassandre and Jewboy could be so alike, because if it’s only twenty five thousand years, it’s more than ten thousand, but not sixty thousand. It actually makes a kind of sense that you would have Cheat’s we knew we Gajda Keita, you could preserve that over twenty five thousand years. I think even conservative language specialists could allow that. So that explains it, which means that those similarities could have been read themselves fifteen years ago as indicating that the Andaman Islanders got there later than we would think. Instead, it’s modern genetic analysis that’s revealed it. But the linguistic data could have told us way back then. So the linguistic data didn’t say what Merrett thought it did, but still it was very valuable because it actually tipped us off. If we had known to read it that way, that today’s OnDemand Islanders got there much later than we would have thought. That is Southeast Asia for you. And I want to give you a little random something. This is from Ben Tharani and. And they have written me that their child likes pink lady apples and of course, you talk about the apple as being a pink lady. Well, his child, Milo, has gone from calling these apples pink ladies to pink ladies. So a perfect example of the back shift, which I enjoyed hearing about. You know, I think about being nine years old, like my oldest kid. Now I don’t have any problems. And pop music sounded like Jasmine. More of that song I have always of Jasmine. I remember hearing it at that age when it was always a sunny day. You’re always in the back seat of some Chevrolet listening to either the spinners or Carole King.
S4: Gil. With every change.
S1: You can reach us at Lexicon Valley, at Slate dot com, that’s Lexicon Valley at Slate dot com to listen to past shows and subscribe or just to reach out, go to sleep dot com slash Lexicon Valley, by the way, the best apple. I mean, pink ladies are nice pink ladies, but the best apple is the Stayman. I highly recommend it. Steet Why man it actually makes me kind of like apples, which is difficult. Mike Volo is as always the editor and I am John McWhorter.
S4: He can pay.
S1: For this Slate plus segment, I want to revisit this issue of words being like cars that have been in accidents all smashed up at the front and also maybe in the back, because that’s not only in Eastern and Southeast Asian languages. That’s true of words in general. And one of my favorites happens to be 100 100. Seems like it’s always been that way because it’s such a basic kind of granitic concept. But No. 100 goes back to a word that would have been very different. Hundred would have started on the steps of Ukraine as roughly Dockum Tomaree Dockum tome. How do you get from Descant Homer to 100? It’s just this process of, you know, little car accidents than people trying to build new stuff. And next thing you know, you’re in a new world. So, for example, let’s say you have a word document. OMORI Well, the document that becomes the little bit that we’re familiar with from Latinate words as decimal decimate. And so Dukan becomes the deck some that some kind of root. So that’s something that happens in, for example, southern Europe. But suppose something else happens somewhere else just by chance. Suppose it doesn’t become Decken, but suppose there’s a little car accident and it loses something up front. Suppose the Documentum becomes just Kontum. So Documentum Kontum for short while quantum can become something like 10 toome. And next thing you know, you have a word. Four hundred, which we inherit from Latin with words like Centennial or if we talk about sense that’s originally from kumkum, which started as Duckmanton Duckmanton sense 20 cents and so Quantum can become Kenton’s. But that’s not the only thing that Quantum can become about somewhere else. How about, for example, Denmark, where a language develops that we call proto Germanic? We can be pretty sure they didn’t call it that, but it became English, German, the Scandinavian languages. That Puerto Germanic language had something happen to it. It’s called Grims Law. For the record, where CUCs became Houzz roughly, Kayes became h.s. So notice that you talk about, you know, beware of the dog and the dog is connies OK Conex. So for example in Italian compnay is dog but we have hound. It’s the same root, it’s just the cook became a hook or like in French the heart is the girl or the quarrelsome in Spanish core is our version of that root. But that is a hook in English and so core is heart in the same way. Koum Tom became Hunton. Now then you have a car accident and something gets smashed at the end of it. And so Tom becomes whomped and then after a while it becomes Hunte, because that’s easier to say because it’s more like Telvin. And so you have a word Hunde. Hunde is what? Hundred was an old English and really it kind of should be just Hunde in English. Now if the dice were rolled again. But Hunde. But then there’s this red. The red came from this ray thing that was in protest of Europeans. So Dukedom Tom Ray, that ray thing had stuff added on, you know, some crummy body shop added some part on, something on. And so the ray became Raef. You have Reath and so you had 100th which has become a hundred and that red meant to count. So it meant like 100 hundred count. That’s the same red that you have in Kindred, you know, counting your kin. It’s also the suffix of hatred. It meant counsell as well. You can count, you can counsel. There’s an overlap between those two things and that’s where you get Alfred. That’s what that is. The name Ralph is the same way Ralph is Ralph. And then a word for Wolf. It’s a wolf council. So hundred is Documentum, right? Becoming hundred over time. Hundred is originally two things. But originally this word would have been three things and they sounded quite different. That’s what happened over thousands of years. And nobody was the wiser. Nobody batted an eyelash. And that is why linguists love language change, because anything that you see changing is that same sort of thing happening. And it’s just that language change is hard to watch while it’s happening. But the result of language change is perfectly innocent. Words like hundred.