When Internment Came to Alaska

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Josh Levin: Gertrude Sivana was raised on the Aleutian Islands off the Alaskan mainland. She’s still there today in the tiny city of Unalaska. She lives in the house her parents bought in 1934.

Speaker 2: That’s a long time ago. Back then, we were very busy subsisting, gathering berries, digging clams, fishing. I had a very happy childhood.

Josh Levin: Gert is 92 now. When she was growing up back in the thirties, there were just 300 people in Unalaska. About half were white, including Kurt’s father. The other half were native Alaskans, the people known as the Unangam. Gertz mother was Unangam.

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Speaker 2: My mom always talked to us about our culture and the way we lived. She taught us quite a bit about surviving out here.

Josh Levin: Survival in remote Unalaska meant knowing how to cure fish and how to make it through the winters.

Speaker 2: And actually, it’s not that cold here. Our problem was the wind and the storms.

Josh Levin: The day Gert and I spoke, the wind was gusting outside her house at 60 miles per hour. The Unangax persevered through those kinds of harsh conditions for thousands of years. But on the morning of June 3rd, 1942, survival meant something very different.

Speaker 2: I woke up and I heard all this yelling and shouting out in the kitchen. And my mother come in and she says, Get your clothes on. Get the kids dressed. We’re being attacked. We’ve got to get out of here.

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Josh Levin: The attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 had launched the country into World War Two. But Hawaii wasn’t the only American territory that got bombed during the war in 1942. The Japanese launched another attack on the United States. This one came in the Aleutian Islands. The U.S. scrambled to defend itself. It seemed like the whole West Coast was now under threat. But what the country did next in the name of protecting Alaska’s indigenous people is a shameful chapter of the war, and it’s one the nation has never fully reckoned with.

Josh Levin: The story of the Unangax is not in most U.S. history textbooks, and it rarely gets mentioned in documentaries about World War Two. But 80 years later, there are people who remember firsthand what happened. People like Gertz of Irony, who are still here to tell their stories so their fellow Americans know the real history of the war in the Aleutian Islands. This is one year 1942, when Internment came to Alaska.

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Josh Levin: The Aleutian Islands stretch southwest of Alaska for more than a thousand miles. They look like a rocky tail in the northern Pacific Ocean. Or if you’re feeling poetic, like a path to the end of the world. The islands are desolate but beautiful. One of the best spots on Earth for birdwatching. So long as you don’t mind that there aren’t any trees, riptides, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are a looming risk. But the Anangu felt comfortable there, even if that meant they were entirely on their own.

Speaker 3: Sometimes the people that lived there would go four years without a visit from a priest.

Josh Levin: Rachel Mason is a cultural anthropologist for the National Park Service based in Alaska.

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Speaker 3: They were quite isolated. It was not uncommon for someone never to have left the Aleutian Islands, never go to the mainland of Alaska.

Josh Levin: The Unangax did have company on the Aleutians starting in the mid 1700s. That’s when the Russians came, lured in by the lucrative trade in sea otter furs.

Speaker 3: The Russians weren’t very competent hunters and they subjugated the younger population because they were so much better hunters and forced them to hunt for them. And the Russian presence had a devastating effect on younger people.

Josh Levin: The Unangax died in enormous numbers from disease, forced labor and Russian violence. In 50 years, the indigenous population plummeted an estimated 80% to just 2500 people. And then after all that destruction, Russia picked up and left.

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Speaker 3: The colony wasn’t very profitable for the Russians, and they were willing to sell it to the Americans. And that’s what happened in 1867.

Josh Levin: Why did the United States want it in the first place?

Speaker 3: And I think they saw it as a land of opportunity. There were a lot of entrepreneurs who arrived wanting to take advantage of the resources to be harvested.

Josh Levin: Gold prospectors flooded in after the U.S. took over. But the government mostly ignored Alaska and its people. When Gertz of Varney was a kid in the 1930s, the local hospital was severely understaffed and the school only went to the eighth grade.

Speaker 2: We didn’t have high school. We had teachers from usually down the States. Unfortunately, they really never encouraged learning about our culture. When I was a child.

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Josh Levin: That neglect also extended to the island’s defenses. As of 1940, the military didn’t have much of a footprint in Alaska. Given that the Aleutian Islands were the closest U.S. territory to Japan. That started to look like a major problem. And so very quickly, hundreds of construction workers descended on the city of Unalaska. They got to work on building a military hub at the port of Dutch Harbor, one that could protect the Aleutians from anything the axis might send their way.

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Speaker 2: They were building barracks, Quonset huts, bunkers and gun emplacements. In fact, they built one right outside our house here. I mean, everything was changed.

Josh Levin: Part of that changed landscape was a barbed wire fence. That barrier restricted the dungeons movements and kept them away from their traditional fishing grounds. These new visitors from the continental U.S. were acting like they own the place. And in a very real sense, they did, especially after Pearl Harbor. Nothing felt more important than protecting the nation from another attack. Unalaska was now a military town.

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Speaker 2: We had soldiers practically outside of our door. I remember the southern accents. Louisiana and Alabama. They were standing watch in this bunker, watching out in the ocean here to see, you know, if there is any action out there.

Josh Levin: The action finally came just before 6 a.m. on the morning of June 3rd, 1942. At first, guards, father and brother thought they were hearing American troops take target practice. But this was not a drill. Bombs were falling on Unalaska.

Speaker 4: The entire West Coast was on the alert. After the two raids on Dutch harbor in Alaska, more submarine activity is reported from the Southwest Pacific.

Josh Levin: The military police showed up at Gertz family’s house and told them they needed to get to safety.

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Speaker 2: We were taken up into the hills and the employees told us to spread out and get them to places where we wouldn’t be seen from the air.

Josh Levin: Kurt was 12 years old and a middle child. She sat in the rain and cold looking after her younger sister.

Speaker 2: I remember just to keep it quiet. I made little dolls and stuff out of the leaves and twigs. We were all frightened, of course.

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Josh Levin: The first Japanese bombing run that day killed 25 people. American fighter jets scrambled to get there, but they arrived too late that night.

Speaker 2: They had sirens going off every once while and every time there was a siren that went off. We had to run to the creek because they had bomb shelters there. They were just holes dug in the creek being. So we spent the night there. There was no beds or anything. We just sat on the ground.

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Speaker 4: The Pacific coast of North America, from Alaska to the Panama Canal is on the lookout today for further Japanese attacks against that continent.

Speaker 2: I think the next night was worse.

Josh Levin: On the second day of the attack, Japanese bombs hit a gun emplacement, a warehouse and a ship being used as a barracks.

Speaker 2: They bombed the oil tanks over there, and that was very loud and scary. It was it was frightening.

Josh Levin: All told, on June 3rd and fourth, the Japanese destroyed 14 U.S. aircraft. A total of 43 Americans were killed, including one civilian. 50 more were wounded. The damage to Dutch Harbor was only a small fraction of what Japan had inflicted in Hawaii. But this felt like a potentially devastating escalation.

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Speaker 4: What are these raids and more severe blows as a matter of speculation. But at any rate, military authorities are taking no chances.

Josh Levin: If Japan captured the Aleutian Islands, they’d have a base to launch attacks on major American cities places like Seattle, San Francisco and Los Angeles. The entire West Coast was panicked at the thought of a Japanese invasion. And in June 1942, that invasion happened.

Speaker 4: Everyone here is wondering about that Japanese landing on the very tip end of those stepping stones called the Aleutian Islands.

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Josh Levin: The target was the island of Attu. A-2 was nearly 350 square miles, and it’s about halfway between Tokyo and the Alaskan capital of Juneau. In 1942, it was home to 45 indigenous Alaskans and one white couple. On June 7th, six months to the day after Pearl Harbor, more than 1000 Japanese soldiers came ashore in Attu. It was a Sunday and everyone was at church when the service ended. They heard a sound they didn’t recognize machine gunfire. The white man who lived on Attu was shot in the head and killed. The other 46 residents were taken hostage.

Josh Levin: No U.S. territory had been occupied by a foreign invader since the war of 1812. But now axis troops were on American soil and American citizens had been forced from their homes and become prisoners of war. Japan now looked poised to strike up and down the Aleutian chain. The island of Vaca might be the next to fall into enemy hands. But the Allies took a drastic step to make sure that didn’t happen.

Speaker 3: The village of outcome was burned by the American military. It was burned so that the Japanese would not use the houses for facilities.

Josh Levin: The unions who lived there watched their village go up in flames. Soon they’d be evacuated from the island entirely. Word would spread quickly throughout the Aleutians. The government had issued orders. This was now a combat zone and the Unangax would need to be removed for their own safety.

Speaker 2: I heard it from my parents. By then they were informing all the people in town that they were going to have to leave the next day.

Josh Levin: Other Runanga communities were given even less time.

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Speaker 3: In the case of the Pribilof. They had only an hour of warning. The ship arrived while they were playing a baseball game and they had to stop the baseball game. So there was no time to pack up their houses, pack up their possessions. They had to be ready to go and leave.

Josh Levin: The Union Jack had to leave behind the icons from their churches and their family pets. They were only supposed to bring one suitcase apiece. Kurt’s mother packed all that she could fit.

Speaker 2: She had just the bare essentials few pots and few sheets, blankets and stuff like that.

Josh Levin: Those would be the only remnants of home for Gert. Her mother and three of her siblings. One of Gertz brothers was allowed to stay because he worked for a military contractor. And Gertz father stayed back, too, as Unalaska postmaster, an essential worker in 1942. But that wasn’t the only reason he got to remain at home.

Speaker 2: My father did not have to leave because he was white, because they said that anyone with an eighth of Unangam blood, they had to leave.

Josh Levin: Nearly 900 people were loaded onto ships pointed away from the Aleutian Islands. More than 100 of them came from Gertz Community. When they pulled away from the shore, they looked back one last time to see what they were leaving behind.

Speaker 2: It was a nice, sunny day, and as we were going out the harbor, I saw my dad and brother out here and they were waving, waving. Nobody knew what was going to happen. They didn’t know how long we were going to be gone or if we were coming back.

Josh Levin: When Unalaska got bombed in June 1942, Gert Sivana had been forced to hide and to sleep in a dirt hole that doubled as a bomb shelter. Now, at 12 years old, she’d been corralled onto a ship and yanked away from the only place she’d ever lived. No one from Unalaska had any idea where they would land. And the people in charge of this mass evacuation, they didn’t really know either.

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Speaker 2: All this time, even when we were on our way, they did not know where they were taking us. And it was such a jungle that Ms..

Speaker 3: It was very ill planned.

Josh Levin: Rachel Mason of the National Park Service.

Speaker 3: There was not a lot of decision making beforehand about where all these people are going to go.

Josh Levin: The U.S. military and the Department of the Interior eventually settled on sending the young guns to southeast Alaska, to the region known as the Alaskan Panhandle. The Panhandle and the Aleutian Islands were technically part of the same territory. But when the Indian people caught sight of their new landing spot, it seemed like a whole other planet.

Speaker 3: One thing that was very frightening to some of the older people was to find that there were heavy forest. They were used to the Treeless Islands of the Aleutians, and so they were very intimidated and didn’t like the trees at all.

Speaker 2: The trees, the trees were the main thing and there were just so many, like the frogs and raspberry bushes. We never saw raspberry, which is before. There is so many things that were new to us.

Josh Levin: The forest girt marveled at, was on Wrangel Island that was home of the Wrangell Institute, a boarding school for native Alaskans.

Speaker 2: When we arrived there, they checked our heads for lice and my mother had to put her kids in these cold showers because there wasn’t enough water. It was cold and the food was awful.

Josh Levin: The Wrangell Institute was a temporary landing spot, a holding area, while the people in charge found a more suitable site. After about two weeks, Gert and her family were on the move again.

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Speaker 2: They decided to move us to this abandoned cannery, a little place called BURNETT Inlet.

Josh Levin: That cannery had belonged to a salmon packing company. It was abandoned because it had caught on fire two years earlier.

Speaker 2: And I think they had about ten or 15 old cannery houses. They were falling down. The first night we stayed there. About 15 of us kids slept on the floor and we could see the stars through the roof.

Josh Levin: BURNETT Inlet was not a more suitable site. There was no electricity or plumbing. There also wasn’t a hospital or a church. Within a few days, everyone skin was covered with boils. Wolves howled all night. That burned out Cannery was one of six relocation camps in southeast Alaska. None of them were fit for human habitation. They were cold and wet, and there was never enough food. At one site, the drinking water was reddish brown.

Speaker 3: There might be a whole family packed into one room, and there were very few sanitary facilities. I know the most about Board Lake. Apparently there was just one toilet for the whole community and it was like a long trough, like latrine.

Josh Levin: Disease was rampant. Pneumonia, tuberculosis and anything else that would spread in close quarters.

Speaker 2: We got the red measles and it was really bad. There was this little room that was for one person, and there were six of us Unangam girls in there with the measles for a long time. I think probably several weeks that we were sick.

Josh Levin: Kurt’s mother was a midwife at BURNETT Inlet. She did her best to tend to the sick, but there was only so much she could do without a doctor or nurse on site. At one of the camps, 24 people died in a calendar year, a death rate three times what it should have been.

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Josh Levin: The unions refuse to accept any of this. Women wrote a petition demanding they be sent to a better place. An administrator admonished them for complaining. He said that under war conditions, they could not expect to enjoy the comforts of home. The union people weren’t supposed to be prisoners. They’d been evacuated for their own protection. But the unions didn’t feel like they’d been rescued. This was something different, Internment. And it wasn’t just happening to them.

Speaker 4: When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, our west coast became a potential combat zone. Living in that zone for more than 100,000 persons of Japanese ancestry, military authorities therefore determined that all of them, citizens and aliens alike, would have to move.

Josh Levin: In 1942, it was government policy that anyone with Japanese ancestry was considered untrustworthy. That was the official reason they got sent to internment camps, supposedly to safeguard American democracy. But white farmers also pushed for internment. It was a policy that benefited them economically, allowing them to buy up their Japanese neighbors land for pennies on the dollar. The union evacuation was also a convenient way to remove a population that some residents didn’t want to have around.

Speaker 2: At one time I heard someone down the street saying, And don’t you go play with those dirty little Elliotts.

Josh Levin: The White Principal of Girt School described young men, women as exotic and immoral, making them a menace to soldiers. A military official said after the bombing of Dutch Harbor that it was time to clean out the entire town. And so the union gains and Kurt’s community got sent to an abandoned cannery. And when they asked for a better place, they were told they didn’t deserve one.

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Speaker 2: Sometimes it was so hard. But, you know, I think that the Unangam people from Unalaska were very, very resilient. Our people just got together and started building, organizing, arrange for certain people to cook, certain people to get wood, repair the houses, fix the roofs.

Josh Levin: The unions built a school and the church. They also built a girl’s mother, a house, in gratitude for her tending to the sick. It was the first new house had BURNETT Inlet uninsulated with one bedroom and an outhouse. Gerd turned 13 a few months after the evacuation. She went back to the Wrangell Institute, the boarding school for native Alaskans. That’s where she caught the red measles and got crammed into a room with six other sick children. But she also made friends and went to school dances.

Speaker 2: We were having a good time mostly. I do remember always being protected so well by all the elders of the village. They just all kind of watched over the children and made sure that we weren’t anxious about things like they were taken. All the worry just let us be kids while we were struggling along.

Josh Levin: But even with the adults taking all the worry, the days didn’t pass quickly. Gert and the other shenanigans were stuck in that Alaskan forest with the trees and the wolves. It was 1943 and there was no end in sight.

Speaker 2: They never informed us about anything, but it was certainly always on our mind that we want to come back.

Josh Levin: What were the things that you missed about home?

Speaker 2: Probably the food. Yeah, our food. You know, we missed the fish and clams, and I think we missed Unalaska. We were hoping the war would be over all the time. We girls would get together and we’d see our first dance and make a wish. And the wish was to go home.

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Josh Levin: The union people of the Aleutian Islands were being terrorized by their own government, ripped from their homes and banished to squalid camps. Meanwhile, the people of Attu were getting subjected to a different kind of suffering. Attu was the remote island that the Japanese army had invaded in June 1942.

Josh Levin: The residents were taken hostage and it got worse from there. All of the surviving had to. It would get loaded onto a ship and taken to Japan as prisoners of war. One would die on the journey and get buried at sea. The remaining 40 would be held until the end of the war with little food or medicine. 16 of them would die in Japan of starvation and disease. In 1942, the Japanese controlled two pieces of U.S. territory A2 and the small island of Kiska. The Allies decided they needed to strike back. If they didn’t, more American land and lives could be at risk.

Speaker 4: Well, the Japanese had not only bombed that harbor, that group we’re now on, the outermost Aleutian Islands outlawed, and it’s got a foothold menacing the continent.

Josh Levin: So in August of 42, the Allies opened an air base in the Aleutians and started bombing Japanese positions. It was the first extensive aerial bombing campaign ever conducted by U.S. forces. One American fighter pilot called it the weirdest war ever waged a three way fight between the United States, the Japanese and the horrid Aleutian.

Speaker 4: Whether sweating it out for hours after blind hour of continuous flight at home without going into the direction, hoping to land on unrelated runways, refuel and take off on a gray blind howl.

Josh Levin: The cold and wind didn’t just wreak havoc in the air. In May 1943, 15,000 U.S. ground troops face those brutal conditions when they embarked on a mission to retake A2.

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Speaker 4: The problem of supplying an expedition to take this vital subarctic outpost is tremendous. But the Americans are well-trained for landings such as this, and they’re bringing everything they’ll need to hold on to against any future attack.

Josh Levin: It was World War Two’s only ground battle in the United States, and it was a catastrophe for everyone. By one measure, it was the deadliest fight in the entire Pacific. Outside of Iwo Jima, poorly equipped American soldiers got stricken with frostbite and trench foot outnumbered Japanese forces charged at them in a suicide attack. Just 28 of the Japanese soldier survived, while more than 2300 were buried in mass graves. Attu was back under American control, and a few months later, so was the island of Kiska. By August 1943, it was all over. The Japanese military was gone from the Aleutian Islands. Now that Alaska was no longer under threat, there was no reason to keep the unions away from their villages. But even when the fighting was done, many of them were not allowed to return to their homes.

Speaker 3: The decision was made that some of the villages would not be repopulated.

Josh Levin: The cultural anthropologist Rachel Mason again.

Speaker 3: I think the government made a decision that it was just too much trouble to bring people back to their communities when they were so remote and it would be so expensive to resettle them there.

Josh Levin: When A2’s 20 plus surviving prisoners of war got back from Japan, they were forbidden from returning to their island. Placing them in a more easily accessible village would save money. So that’s what the government decided to do. When the unions had been told to leave the Aleutians, they’d been given as little as an hour’s notice. But their return to the islands took forever. Government officials dithered and delayed worrying about whether there’d be enough housing and who would pay for supplies. They also got word that some white residents didn’t want their own younger neighbors to ever come back. And so Gert Suvarna, her mother, and her siblings, waited in southeast Alaska for almost two more years. It wasn’t until April 1945 when Gert finally got the news she’d been wishing for.

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Speaker 2: We couldn’t believe that we were going to be able to leave. Everybody was excited. Everybody was packing. We packed all our stuff and we had a great big dance. What a joyous time we had there.

Josh Levin: On April 16th, 135 on Alaskans boarded an Army troop ship. It had been going on three years since Gert had seen her father wave goodbye from the shore. Five days later, they made landfall.

Speaker 2: And in the morning they put his son, trucks and kids on the back of trucks and stopped at the top of the hill there. And we got to look over the town, got to see the church.

Josh Levin: That must have felt pretty great.

Speaker 2: Yeah, it was wonderful.

Josh Levin: When the Unalaska has got back to their homes, those feelings of elation turned into something else.

Speaker 3: The houses were still there, but there was a lot of damage. People had been in them and looted their homes in some cases.

Josh Levin: And that was members of the U.S. military had done that.

Speaker 3: Yes, that was the only one who could have done it. Really?

Speaker 2: They ransacked the houses. I always remember my friends there was hoping to find her a puppet that she was just anxious to get. Of course it was gone. There were just wrecks. We broke the windows and, you know, they just took whatever they could.

Josh Levin: Gertz family was relatively lucky. Her father had been able to stay behind because he was a white essential worker, and he protected his family’s property. But other unknown kids found their furniture, clothing, books and religious icons had all been plundered. There were also burn pits where youngins belongings had been incinerated and the island’s landscapes were littered with trash. Earth’s community needed time to clean up and rebuild. But in April 1945, World War Two still wasn’t quite over. And in Unalaska, the military men were still acting like they own the place.

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Speaker 2: They still had barbed wire fence up all over. We could not go out in the hills. We just had to stay right in town here. And that went on for quite a while.

Josh Levin: When the war finally ended, the military’s presence in the Aleutians gradually dwindled. But the devastation of the World War two years would linger for the separated families. The ancient villages that had to be abandoned, the ransacked houses and property. The deaths of an estimated 10% of the Indonesians who evacuated, and the profound cultural losses that can be tied directly to the evacuation.

Speaker 3: The language Unangam Tunuu before the war. Those languages were spoken by a lot of people. In the case of ETA, most of the people only spoken to knew. I think that the war led to a loss of the language and it hastened the loss of a lot of our traditions.

Josh Levin: The young guns felt immense trauma during and after the war. Some became ashamed of their native heritage. Most just tried to forget what happened. Gert got married in 1952, a World War Two veteran from Wisconsin. They had four daughters, and she began to understand more deeply what her own mother had gone through during the evacuation. But Gert never talked publicly about what she’d survived during the war. That changed in the early 1980s, thanks to years of activism.

Josh Levin: By Japanese-Americans. The U.S. government created a federal commission on World War two Internment. That commission held a series of public hearings, most of them about the Japanese experience. But they also went to Unalaska and of Ani decided she was ready to talk.

Speaker 2: Yes, I did give testimony on that when they asked me to. Yeah, dredged up a lots of memories.

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Josh Levin: Gert told the commission about her experience at Wrangell Institute, the boarding school for native Alaskans. She said that she was constantly hungry and that her education suffered because no one was qualified to teach. She talked about coming down with rheumatic fever and crying out because her legs were in so much pain.

Speaker 2: And I was in the hospital a month and a half. I went from 112 down to £96.

Josh Levin: A year and a half. After Gert testified, the commission released its report. It said that Japanese internment was the result of race, prejudice, war hysteria and a failure of political leadership. The report also included a section on the unions. It said their evacuation had a rational basis, but there was no justification for how they were treated. It also acknowledged the looting of Hunan guns, homes by the U.S. military and the lack of urgency in getting them back home. In 1988, Ronald Reagan would sign a bill that included a formal apology to Japanese internees. That legislation mentioned the unions, too.

Speaker 4: I’d like to note that the bill I’m about to sign also provides funds for members of the alert community who were evacuated from the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands after a Japanese attack in 1942.

Josh Levin: But the government didn’t quite say it was sorry.

Speaker 4: This action was taken for the its own protection, but the property was lost or damaged. That has never been replaced. And now, in closing.

Josh Levin: The bill did give the unions some compensation for that lost or damaged property.

Speaker 2: They decided to give us $12,000 and that was it. They figured that was what it was all worth, I guess.

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Josh Levin: Did you feel like that was fair?

Speaker 2: Oh, of course. Of course. It was not fair.

Josh Levin: The government finally issued a formal apology in 2017. But at 92 years old, Gert tries to look forward. She’s a working artist, upholding union tradition by working with whalebone and bentwood. And she remains resolutely self-sufficient.

Speaker 2: I’m on my own lawn. I go berry picking. I’ve taught my children how to cure fish, smoke, fish, take care of fish. And so we all get together and do that in the summer.

Josh Levin: I asked her what she hoped people might learn from her story.

Speaker 2: I think that people should know about it, for one thing. And and so many people have never even heard of it.

Josh Levin: Back in 1981, that Federal Commission had asked Gert what the government could do to try to make amends. Her answer Make sure that it never happens again to anyone. Next time.

Josh Levin: On the season finale of one year 1942, black Americans in East Saint Louis drill for war awaiting a Japanese invasion. But whose side are they on? If the country is about to be invaded, you’re oppressed and persecuted. Well, of course you want to be part of the new order. Can’t be that much worse than the old war. One year is written by me Josh Levin. Our senior producer is Evan Chung.

Josh Levin: This episode was produced by Sam Kim, Sophie Summergrad, Evan Chung, Sol Werthan and Me. It was edited by Evan Chung and Derek John, Slate’s senior supervising producer of Narrative podcasts. Our senior technical director is Merritt Jacob Holly Allen and created the artwork for this season. You can send us feedback and ideas and memories from 1942 at one year at Slate.com. You can call us on the one year hotline at 2033430777. We’d love to hear from you. Thank you. To Dimitri, Philomena.

Josh Levin: Sharon, Silvana Livingston, Lauren Adams, Ray Hudson, Millie Jackson, Virginia Hatfield.

Josh Levin: And Lena. Patricia Le Cannon. Gregory. Special thanks to Bill Carey, Katie Rayford, Ben Richmond, Caitlin Schneider. Cleo Levin, Seth Brown, Rachel Strong, Alexandra Settle, Meyer and Alicia Montgomery, Slate’s VP of Audio. Thanks for listening. We’ll be back next week with the season finale of one year 1942.